What you need to know about non-ferrous metals: a list of non-ferrous metals
What are non-ferrous metals? To get a clearer understanding, study the list of non-ferrous metals given in the article.
A bit of theory
Non-ferrous metals are metals that do not contain any amount of iron and, therefore, do not have two of its most noticeable properties - magnetism and corrosion. Non-ferrous metals, unlike iron, do not rust when exposed to oxygen and moisture. There is another feature of them: they can be processed and used as a building material, since they are much stronger than iron due to their resistance to corrosion, therefore the cost of non-ferrous metals is rather big.
The category of non-ferrous metals has an impressive list. Let's get to know some of them.
List of non-ferrous metals
Although there are many natural metals and their alloys, mankind has created a decent amount of metal compounds in an attempt to improve their quality.Indeed, in recent decades, the metallurgical industry has made great strides forward, creating an alternative to iron because of its more persistent qualities. Possessing an advantage over iron, non-ferrous metals are used as a building, reinforcing material for buildings, appliances, transport vessels and various technical means, in the automotive and aviation industries. Depending on the use and cost of non-ferrous metals are different. For example, the cost of steel per ton on the London Stock Exchange is $ 310, aluminum is $ 1901, copper is $ 6001.5, lead is $ 2212, nickel is $ 9,560, tin is $ 20,325, and zinc is $ 2,758.
Here is a list of non-ferrous metals resistant to corrosion and resistant to moisture and magnetism: aluminum, zinc, copper, lead, chromium, lithium, beryllium, titanium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, molybdenum, barium, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, rubidium , cesium, antimony, rhodium, palladium, silver, gold, thallium, platinum, tungsten, iridium, rhenium, mercury, tin.
Common non-ferrous metals and their use
One of the most well-known non-ferrous metal samples, which is obtained by combining two or more other non-ferrous non-precious metals, is alloyed metals, in which the percentage of copper is greater than its other components.These include tin, aluminum, copper, brass, silver, lead, gold and others. All these alloys have the same two basic qualities of non-ferrous metals with their basic metal components - indifference to magnets and resistance to corrosion. Below is the most common list of non-ferrous metals:
- Brass is a combination of copper and zinc, usually in proportions from 65% to 35%, respectively. Used for decorative purposes and inside electrical fittings.
- Copper is a natural substance. In the environment it is found both in metallic form and in ore. The fact that the metal conducts heat and electricity means that it is used for wiring and pipes. Copper is resistant to corrosion when doped with other metals.
- Aluminum is a metallic alloy of aluminum, copper and manganese. Very light and flexible metal. Used in the manufacture of aircraft, window frames and some kitchen utensils. Aluminum has a lower density than copper, and therefore has a higher electrical conductivity per unit mass.
- Lead is a natural universal substance.Possesses such properties as: high atomic weight, so the alloy is heavy, increased softness, density, ductility, low strength and melting point, corrosion resistance. One of the major drawbacks is toxicity. There are two main classes: chemical lead and total lead. Often used in roofing, in batteries and for the manufacture of pipes, cable sheathing. Having the best performance, pure lead is used in medical equipment, namely in X-ray machines. When doping with tin and antimony, lead is used as a solder in the soldering of electronic circuits due to a lower melting point.
- Silver is a natural substance, but mixing with copper creates the usual alloy. Used for making jewelry, as well as for soldering different metals together.
- Tin is one metal that cannot be specifically placed in the category of ferrous or non-ferrous metals. Although it does not contain iron, tin has paramagnetic (white tin) and diamagnetic (gray-tin) properties. Pure tin is too weak a metal to use on its own.It is often doped with elements such as copper, antimony, lead, aluminum, and zinc to improve mechanical or physical properties. Usually used as a coating for other metals, such as cans, making dishes, as well as solder.
Category: non-ferrous heavy metals
The raw materials for the production of such metals are sulfide and oxide complex metal ores. They usually contain many noble metals, rare and other valuable elements that are extracted as by-products. Heavy non-ferrous metals are represented by a group of non-ferrous metals comprising copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), bismuth (Bi ), antimony (Sb) and mercury (Hg).
In the production of non-ferrous heavy metals, two types of methods are used: pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical. The first option is carried out at high temperatures and usually involves melting the entire mass of raw materials. Pyrometallurgical processing is usually preceded by mechanical enrichment of ores, which is associated with the partial separation of valuable minerals and minerals of barren rocks by flotation or gravity dressings. Non-ferrous metals obtained in one of these processes are subsequently removed.
Hydrometallurgical methods are based on the selective dissolution of valuable components in aqueous acid solutions or other solvents, followed by separation from the solution by electrolysis or cementation methods.
Heavy non-ferrous metalsused in their elemental state, and in the form of various alloys with other non-ferrous metals and iron. Many chemical compounds of such metals are widely used in industry and agriculture. Some compounds, such as PbS, CdS, ZnS, HgTe and CdTe, possess valuable semiconductor properties and play an important role in the development of electronic technology.
What do we know about zinc?
Zinc is an inexpensive material with moderate strength. Its chemical composition resembles magnesium. However, mechanically zinc is more plastic, but not so strong. Zinc is most often used to extend the life of other materials, such as steel (galvanization), rubber and plastic (as an inhibitor of aging), wood (in paintwork).
Zinc-based alloys are used as a cast metal because it has a low melting point (419.5º C), which does not affect steel, and has good strength properties and dimensional stability.
Mining of non-ferrous metals
Our country has almost unlimited mineral reserves and is a kind of raw material base for the non-ferrous metal industry. Ores of non-ferrous metals are divided into two types: geogenic and man-made.
Geogenic is a deposit of mineral resources on the surface of the earth or in depth, which can be used in industry in terms of quantity, quality, conditions of origin and manufacturability. Geogenic sediments consist of one or several deposits. The main significant reserves are attributed to man-made deposits.
The industrial application and processing of non-ferrous metals is used for the distribution of mineral resources in:
- fuel and energy resources (oil, natural gas, fossil coal, oil shale, peat, uranium, ore);
- ore resources, which are the raw material base of iron, steel and non-ferrous metals in industry (iron and manganese ore, chromite, bauxite, polymetallic ore,copper-nickel alloy, tungsten, molybdenum, tin, ores of precious metals, etc.);
- mining and chemical raw materials (phosphorite, apatite, potassium and magnesia, salts, sulfur and compounds, barite, boric ore, methyl bromide);
- natural building materials and non-metallic stones (marble, granite, jasper, agate, stone, crystal, garnet, corundum, diamond, etc.);
- hydromineral resources (underground sweet and saline water).
The ore layer is formed in the process of evolution of the earth's crust. The substances necessary for the formation of mineral resources come from the upper mantle of the crust and from the surface in igneous melts, liquid and gaseous solutions. In this regard, non-ferrous metal ores are endowed with alkaline properties and are often represented in the form of deposits of mica, feldspar, and precious stones. In addition, there are ores of rock crystal, graphite, quartz, fluorite, asbestos and other rocks.
Ore rocks accumulate in coastal sediments of the seas and oceans, as sedimentary rocks with the formation of layered layers at the bottom of wetlands, in river or lake sediments and on the slopes of valleys. The prominent representatives of the ore deposits of non-ferrous metals are the iron ores of the Krivoy Rog basin and the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, gold and uranium ores of South Africa.