What to feed the chickens? Types of feed, nutritional standards in winter and summer
In the Russian private farms is the most popular type of poultry. Provided proper feeding, the hens provide stable and healthy egg delivery. There are different approaches to feeding patterns, the choice of which depends on the chickens themselves, the time of year and the conditions of their keeping. The question of how to feed chickens should be approached responsibly, since the quality of the product they produce depends on it.
Useful feed ingredients
Despite the differentiated approach to feeding, there is an optimal set of elements that should be present in the diet of the bird. Among these components emit:
- Squirrels. This is the basis by which the formation of the body cells of chickens and, accordingly, eggs takes place. In particular, proteins are contained in plant components, including rapeseed, soybean and oilcake.
- Fat This element is required for energy reserve.First, the fats are deposited in the subcutaneous layer of chicken, and then spent on eggs. When deciding how to feed laying hens, consider one nuance: be sure to introduce grains of oats and corn containing fats into the feed.
- Carbohydrates. Responsible for the function of vital organs and muscles. Carbohydrates are present in fiber, starch and sugar. Composing a combined diet, it is necessary to include fodder beet, potatoes and pumpkin in it. Also, it will not be superfluous content of shells of cereal grains.
- Vitamins. Lack of vitamins leads to diseases and affects productivity. For chickens, vitamins A, D and B are especially important, the sources of which are baker's yeast, grass, pine meal and fish oil.
The basis of any feed for poultry is grain. Its content in the total diet should not be less than half. The fact is that feed for chickens should be focused on a short digestive process in conditions of intensive metabolism. For this reason, grain, which includes a high content of concentrated nutrients, is considered as the best option for feeding birds.It would seem that if the grain is such a useful and effective component, then why can't the whole diet consist of it? The disadvantage of this feed is the low content of protein elements and amino acids. Therefore, it must be diluted with protein concentrates.
If we talk about a specific cereal feed suitable for chickens, then you should highlight corn. It is suitable for both chickens and adults. In addition, many novice poultry farmers are faced with a choice: barley or wheat? Both of these options are mainly used for young animals, but it is desirable to continue the introduction of cereals into the diet, preferably wheat, containing beneficial vitamins E and B.
Protein based feed
Besides the fact that protein portions are diluted in portions of the grain base, they can also be used separately. In this case, it is not necessary to divide the protein elements into animal and vegetable. Especially for poultry, nutrition is important, in which both varieties are organically combined. So, determining what to feed the chickens and what to choose from animal proteins, you need to consider fish and meat and bone meal, converse, small fish and small pieces of animal meat.Vegetable proteins are present in the feed, composed of legume, cake, lupine and meal. Again, good nutrition of chickens is possible only when combining both types of proteins.
Feed in this category provides the bird with vitamins and, to a large extent, with mineral elements. The green base should be at least 20% by weight of the concentrated feed. If there is a question about how to feed domestic chickens in the summer, then the best option would be meadows with green herbs. In particular, the bird consumes alfalfa, clover and peas. Young nettle is also very useful - it contains proteins, carotene, and also many vitamins. Young herbs are the most beneficial when their stems and leaves are saturated with micronutrients.
By the end of the summer, it is desirable to provide for cabbage feeding. During this period, green grass grows coarse, and kale keeps tenderness. It is better to combine with flour additives. The beet and carrot tops are also useful, but must be ground before they are added to the feed. In combination with chopped stems and leaves, the cereal is also well consumed (its variety is not particularly important for the chicken)which, in its usual form and without additives, they eat poorly. In the mash is worth adding and stale fruits from fruit trees.
The roots themselves are able to replace dry food. Traditional for Russian farms beets, radishes and carrots are fed to chickens in large quantities. For example, fresh carrots: for an adult bird, the dose is 30 grams per day. For chickens, the rate is 2 times less - respectively, 15 g. Sometimes chicken is fed small potatoes, but before that it should be boiled. In addition, feed for chickens may include ripe tomatoes and watermelon. They should also be counted on 15-30 grams per bird. Such feed is usually given to chickens from spring to autumn. They lay the nutritional base, which is necessary for the winter, when a lack of vitamins can adversely affect productivity.
Features of feed for layers
The best way to feed the runaway chickens is to ensure a balanced supply of all the above elements of the diet. However, to stimulate the carrying of eggs should provide some subtleties in the preparation of food:
- All protein components are pre-crushed, after which they are added to the wet mash.
- Potatoes with the other root vegetables are also ground with a grater to a slurry, which is further mixed with flour basis.
- Meat and fish waste is also included in the ration of the hens. By the way, if the question arises about how to feed chickens during periods of vitamin deficiency, it is exactly canned fish and meat waste that needs to be filled with whey will come to the rescue.
- Grain feeds are usually given in solid form, but it is better to grind them. The optimal fraction of croup is 1-2 mm.
- It is advisable to soak the legumes before shaping the feed, and then steaming it in water. This will facilitate the easy absorption of proteins in the body of the bird.
Feeding when moulting
In adult birds, the plumage changes every year. Shedding is a common process that begins in the fall and lasts from 2 to 4 months. It may be accompanied by a decrease in egg-carrying function in the background of weakening the body. By molting, you can identify chickens that are no longer fruitful - you can, without thinking, send it to the soup. Such a bird is identified by an early plumage change. That is, if the molt began in the summer, then you will not have to wait for a large number of eggs from the chicken.Anyway, it is important to know how to feed the chickens correctly during this period. The emphasis is not on the abundance of food, but on its diversity and balance. The main requirement for the content of such a diet - the presence of calories. At this time, just canned meat and fish canned food, as well as the reverse and fresh cottage cheese. In addition, they give egg shells, beet leaves, boiled potatoes and slaked lime, which is necessary for the formation of strong and healthy eggs.
Summer and winter feeding rates
Summer, at first glance, seems to be a favorable time, since it is possible to form a variety of food, rich in vitamins and microelements. This is true, but in the summer, a foundation is also being created that allows the bird to successfully winter. The following list will help you understand how to feed chickens during this period, and find out what is the optimal daily rate:
- cereals - 50 g;
- hay flour - about 10 g;
- flour mixture - 50 g;
- flour from the bones - about 2 g;
- juicy additives in the form of tops and root vegetables - 40 g;
- protein components - 20 g;
- crushed shell or shell - 5 g.
This is the average daily rate, which should be divided in doses for the whole day.Accordingly, the question may arise about how many times to feed chickens per day. As a rule, feeding is carried out no more than 4 times. Early in the morning you can give the third part of the grain norm, and after 2 hours to make a wet bump with the expectation that the chickens have eaten it within an hour. At night, as in the morning, the birds are mainly fed grain with the inclusion of the necessary additives.
The winter diet is slightly different, both in composition of feed and in volume:
- grain basis - 50 g;
- nettle or hay flour - 10 g;
- potatoes (boiled) - 100 g;
- wet bumpiness - 30 g;
- sunflower cake - no more than 10 g;
- yogurt - 100 g;
- shell with chalk - 2-3 g;
- flour from bones - 2 g.
Feeding chickens is the main condition for their health, as well as getting large and vitamins-filled eggs. When deciding how to feed the laying hens, it is important to focus on the quality of the initial components, variety and appropriate training. It is worth noting that the bird can be demanding to the state of the feed, so processes such as grinding, boiling and creating wet mash are very important. Especially carrying hens should willingly consume all the components included in the diet, and for this, they should be properly prepared for their preparation.