What is the essence of local government? Key Features
What is the essence of local government? Briefly, we will try to answer this question in our article. Let's start with the definition of this concept.
Before you understand the essence of local government, dive into the national history. This concept was widely used in Tsarist Russia. The state understood that only the residents themselves knew the specifics of their life better, therefore it gave broad powers to regulate life within the communities. Hence the term "arbitrariness."
So, local government is a form of exercise of power by the people through local elected bodies.
The 1917 revolution: a change in consciousness
The events of October 1917 changed the internal ideology. Now the state had total control over every city, village, street, house.Private houses became the property of collective and state farms. All residents were obliged to work in them, fulfilling a certain standard. The term “arbitrariness” itself has become synonymous with the concepts “enemy” and “plunderer”. No decision should have been taken without the consent of local councils and committees. The whole system created a clear hierarchy of subordination, where the downstream organization is subordinate to the superior.
Basic Law on Local Government
The RF Constitution proclaimed the ideal concept of broad internal autonomy, which will be very difficult to implement in practice. What is the essence of local government? The theory says that in a certain territory local authorities should carry out their activities based on the interests of the population. How is this possible?
The fact is that the essence of local government is as follows: local authorities are not part of the state, they are autonomous, independent. It follows from this that the supervisory authorities should carry out only the supervisory function, monitor compliance with the law and, in case of detection of offenses, respond according to their competence.Public authorities - supervising and supervising - should not give orders and orders how to act in this or that situation. It is assumed that local authorities know local problems better than others. Informally, the system of municipalities is called the “fourth estate”.
How local governments are formed
Speaking about the essence of local self-government, it is impossible not to mention how it is formed. Based on local charters, the population chooses a representative body of local government and an elected head of the municipality. They can have various names, proceeding from culture and local traditions: the head, the head, the chairman, the headman, etc. The essence of their functions does not change from this. The representative body makes the main decisions of the municipality within its competence, and the elected head executes them.
Some subjects of self-government do not choose a chapter in general elections and assemblies. They elect members of the representative body of local self-government (parliament, Majlis, committee, council, etc.) at the regular session. Such a rule does not violate the current legislation, since.Deputies of local parliaments are elected by universal suffrage of the residents of the municipality.
It is assumed that the elected head and representative body will act in the interests of the residents of a particular locality, since it is they who form their power.
So, what is the essence of local government: the population chooses its own deputies, "presidents", who are not part of the general system of state power. It is assumed that this situation will be in the interests of local residents. But in practice, unfortunately, this is not always the case.
Political autonomy is exercised throughout the territory of Russia: villages, urban-type settlements, cities, districts, districts in cities — all of them can be municipalities. Federal laws sometimes restrict territories in which local government is unacceptable. These are, as a rule, special cases that affect the security and constitutional order. If there is no threat to security, the government supports the activities of the municipalities.
Charter of the municipality
Each municipality adopts its own charter, which helps to understand the essence of local government.The main feature of such a charter is that its provisions should not contradict the general federal laws of the Russian Federation, as well as the local laws of the subjects, on the administrative territory of which the municipality is located.
The statute defines the boundaries of the municipality, issues of local importance, structure, order of formation of representative bodies, their competence, the order of participation of residents in the political life of the municipality, etc.
Competence of local authorities
Municipalities are engaged in issues of life support of the population located in its administrative territory. But what is the essence of local government besides this? What issues are they competent to consider? Typically, this is:
- Ownership, use, disposal of property.
- Establishing your own taxes.
- The solution of issues related to the provision of municipal institutions of education, health, public order.
- Control over the use of land, energy, heat, water supply.
- Maintenance of roads, crossings, bridges of municipal importance.
- Resolving issues related to the maintenance of personal subsidiary farming of residents of the municipality, etc.
Division of responsibility
Local government is governed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, Federal Law No. 131-FZ of October 6, 2003 “On the General Principles of the Organization of Local Self-Government”, some norms of the Civil, Tax, Budgetary, Administrative Codes of the Russian Federation, etc.
The state is not liable with its property for the activities of municipalities. It is also not liable for the financial obligations of local governments. The latter should conduct their activities on the basis of their financial capabilities.
The main problem of municipalities
For people who have spent much time in the Soviet Union, the system of municipalities is incomprehensible. They consider it criminal: how can one manage the territory and not enter the system of state power. And if you look at it, then such a system is effective, but for this, a mandatory condition must be met: the municipalities must have a developed domestic economy. It is unrealistic to create an independent association in the conditions of collecting local penny taxes.
As a rule, all municipalities depend on subventions and subsidies from federal and regional budgets. Consequently, it is not necessary to talk about any kind of independence with such an approach: one cannot spit into the well from which you drink. How can you control the territory, despite the higher authorities, if life depends on their revenues? The center is trying to promote the economic activities of municipalities, but so far such actions are extremely ineffective.