What is capacitance capacitance?
Capacitors, as well as resistances, can be connected in series and in parallel. In addition, in the schemes there are mixed connections.
As you can see, the capacitance of a capacitor in both cases is considered differently. This also applies to voltage and charge. By the formulas it can be seen that the capacitance of the capacitor, or rather, their combination in the circuit, will be greatest when connected in parallel. With a consistent total capacity is significantly reduced.
When connected in series, the charge is placed evenly. It will be the same everywhere - both total and on each capacitor. And when the connection is parallel, the total charge is added. It is important to remember when solving problems.
Voltage is considered the opposite. With a serial connection fold, and when parallel, it is equal everywhere.
Here you have to choose: if you need more voltage, then we sacrifice capacity. If the capacity, then the huge voltage will not be.
Types of capacitors
There is a huge amount of capacitors. They differ in both size and shape.
Of course, the capacity is calculated for all in different ways.
Electric capacitance of a flat capacitor
The capacity of a flat capacitor is determined most easily. This formula is basically everything and remember, unlike others.
It all depends on the physical parameters and the environment between the plates.
It is also of great importance what kind of dielectric or material is placed inside. Since the part has the size of a sphere, its capacity depends on the radius.
In the case of a cylindrical shape, except for the medium inside, the radii and length of the cylinder have a value.
Damage to capacitors
Think about how to change the capacitance of a flat capacitor, if it will be damaged? There are various malfunctions that may affect the performance of capacitors.
For example, they crack or swell. After that, they become unsuitable for normal operation of the device where they are installed.
Consider examples of damage and failure of capacitors. Everybody can take a breath.
Sometimes only a few fail. This happens when the capacitors of different parameters or quality.
A good example of damage (bloating, tearing and breaking out of the contents).
If you see such tapes, this is an extreme degree of damage. Worse and can not be.
If you notice such bloated capacitors on the device (for example, on a video card in a computer), this is a reason to think about replacing the part.
Similar problems can be fixed only by replacing with a similar part. You must match all the parameters one by one. Otherwise, the work may be incorrect or very short.
You need to change the capacitors carefully without damaging the board. It is necessary to unsolder quickly, not allowing overheating. If you are not able to do this, it is better to take the item for repair.
The main cause of destruction is overheating, which occurs in the case of aging or high resistance in the circuit.
It is recommended not to delay the repair. Since the capacity of the damaged capacitors changes, the device where they are located will operate with a deviation from the norm. And over time, this may cause a failure.
If you have capacitors on the video card, their timely replacement can correct the situation. Otherwise, the chip may burn or something else. In this case, the repair will be very expensive or even impossible.
Above was an example with a can of water. It said that if more water was poured, the water would flow out. And now think, where electrons in the condenser can "pour out"? After all, it is sealed completely!
If you feed more current into the circuit than the one the capacitor is designed for, then as soon as it is charged, its excess will try to go somewhere. And there is no free space. The result will be an explosion. In the case of a slight charge excess, the cotton will be small. But if you submit a huge amount of electrons to a capacitor, it will simply break off, and the dielectric will flow out.