What is the camp: the difficult history of a simple word
In modern Russian, there are more than 130 thousand words, not counting. However, the vocabulary of an ordinary native speaker includes about 8-15 thousand. The great Russian writer A.S. Pushkin used in his works a little more than 21 thousand lexical units.
Each, even the simplest, at first glance, word has a long history. For example, every Russian person has heard what a "camp" is. But the fact that this word has about ten meanings is not known to everyone.
Words, like living beings, are born and die, go out of use. Some are originally Russian, and some are of foreign origin, but enjoy all the rights of a full-fledged citizen of our language.
There are also twin words, which, having the same appearance, are internally completely different. Such lexical units in linguistics are called homonyms. For example, we all know what a camp is like a female body. But also part-millIncluded in the names of some states: Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. However, this part of compound words has nothing to do with a female figure. In Turkic languages, “camp” means “land”, “country”. The origin of this word is elevated to the Persian language.
Let us consider this interesting homonym in more detail and define what a camp is.
Basic meanings of the word "camp"
In the Big Dictionary there are as many as 8 meanings of this lexical unit. All of them are used colloquially. Here are some of them:
- The figure, the silhouette of a man.This girl is beautifulfrom.
- The camp of the enemy.Our partisans snuck infrom.the enemy.
- All army.Under the city is locatedfrom.Russian army.
- A group of people united to solve social and political tasks.S. Social Democrats.
- Device for conducting any working activity.Printedfrom.
- Metal processing equipment.Weaving,rollingmill.
Words that have one form, but denoting different concepts, are called multivalued. The specific meaning of the word "camp" can only be defined in context.
What exactly does “camp” mean as a female body?
Consider the option of the most frequent use of the concept. The main meaning of the word "camp", which is used in modern Russian, is associated with the designation of a beautiful figure. As a rule, a girl is meant, but sometimes this word can be used as a synonym for the word “bearing” to describe a strong and slender male body.
In order to understand what a “camp” is for the designation of a human body, let us turn to the similar words: “figure” and “silhouette”.
The word "figure" is of foreign origin, as is the word "silhouette." Gradually, these two "aliens" pushed the Russian word "camp" in their rights, but they did not succeed in completely evicting it from their native space. The word “camp” allowed foreigners to earn trust in colloquial speech, but it itself moved into the domain of the poetic and sublime. Since the beginning of the twentieth century. with the help of this lexical unit, they began to designate not only an exceptionally beautiful and burly body, but also a manner of behaving: grace, gait, something that is remembered, but clearly not striking. In such a sense, this word was used by A. Blok in the poem “The Stranger”, where the poet described a meeting with a mysterious and unearthly maiden.
Outdated and obscure word meanings
Now, when we have defined what a camp is in modern Russian, let us consider other little-used or unrecorded meanings of this word:
- As a public institution. In tsarist Russia, the police station was so called, and the worker of this division was called the police station.
- As part of the clothes. In sewing the camp is called part of the pattern without sleeves. If the product is an upper garment (shirt, blouse), this word can name only part of the pattern to the waist.
- As the designation of the waist. This is an obsolete value, which was used until the end of the XIX century. and recorded in the dictionary V.I. Dahl. The word "camp" in this sense is preserved in the stable expression "caftan in the camp." This means that men's clothing is tapered at the waist and most often has a belt. Also in the old days, women were told that they “girded along the chest,” that is, Russian women's dresses had ties under their breasts, and then expanded.
- Like own name. In full formMillis rare, most often used as a short and vocative form from the namesStanislavandStanislaus. The peculiarity of this name isthat his sound shell can be correlated with the noun “camp” (“he who has a beautiful figure”) and with the verb “stand” (“he who is adamant, firm in decisions, stands his ground”).
It is not so easy to understand correctly what a camp is. Such a well-known word has about a dozen meanings that are known not to every native Russian speaker. Our language is amazing, multifaceted and fraught with many interesting things.