What is physiotherapy?
What is physiotherapy?
- different physiotherapeutic procedures, for example, electrophoresis
(from the Greek ph # 253; sis - nature and therapy), a section of medicine that studies the curative properties of physical factors and develops methods for their application with a therapeutic and prophylactic purpose. In a number of foreign countries the term "F." designates only therapeutic gymnastics; on the other hand, the terms "physiatry", "physical medicine", used in modern literature as synonyms of F., cover all medical physical means and methods, including gymnastics and massage. According to the terminology accepted in the USSR, the study of natural spa factors (balneotherapy, climatotherapy and mud therapy) is the subject of an independent division of medicine - balneology, which together with F. is a unified scientific discipline. Therapeutic gymnastics and massage, mechanotherapy (excluding vibrotherapy) are referred to as therapeutic physical training. Thus, in the USSR in the notion of F. include: 1) the study and application of the physical factors created by the transformation of certain types of energy into the energy of biological processes, - physical therapy (including light therapy, electrotherapy, aeroionotherapy, aerosol therapy); 2) use of natural factors (fresh water, peat, clay, ozocerite, etc.) outside resorts, i.e. in special physiotherapeutic hospitals, clinics, offices.
Natural factors were used for therapeutic purposes (especially hydrotherapy and sun treatment) in the countries of the Ancient East, Greece and Rome. In connection with the discovery of electricity and the progress of physics with 18's. began the development of physical therapy, mainly electrotherapy; In the future, the newly discovered physical factors-static electricity (franklinization), galvanic current (galvanization and drug electrophoresis), asymmetric alternating current (faradization), high-frequency currents (darsonvalization, diathermy) were subsequently sequentially introduced into medical practice. In modern physics, magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fields of low, high, ultrahigh and ultrahigh frequencies (inductothermy, UHF-, microwave therapy, etc.), artificial light radiation (from infrared to ultraviolet and monochromatic coherent radiation, see Laser radiation ), mechanical oscillations (from infrasonic to ultrasound), etc. Formation of AF as a special branch of medicine refers to the beginning of 20 c. , when the 1 International Congress on Physical Therapy (1905) took place in Liège.
In Russia, the methods F., mainly hydrotherapy and some types of electrotherapy, have been used since the beginning of the 19 c. ; A. Bolotov (1803) was the pioneer of electrotherapy, A. Nikitin (1825) was a hydrotherapy, and A. Maklakov (1889) was a phototherapy. G. A. Zakharyin, S. P. Botkin, A. A. Ostroumov, and others used the methods of F. for the complex treatment of many diseases. At the beginning of xnumx. 20 research institutes for physical methods of treatment were established (in Sevastopol, Petrograd, and near Moscow). As a specialized scientific and practical section of medicine F. develops after the Great October Socialist Revolution. E theoretical basis - the provisions of the physiological teachings of I. M. Sechenov, N. E. Vvedensky, I. P. Pavlov. Great contribution to the development of scientific F. made Sov. scientists A.E. Shcherbak, P.G. Mezernitsky, S.A. Brushteyn, A.V. Rakhmanov and others. The Institute of Physiatry and Orthopedics (now the Institute of Balneology and Physiotherapy) was established at 3 in Moscow.
Physical factors influenced a person throughout his evolution; therefore physiotherapeutic procedures exert more physiological influence on the body than many medications. Physiotherapeutic procedures cause both nonspecific and specific responses of the body.
The latter are due to the peculiarities of the active factor and the pathological process and provide the main therapeutic effect. The task of F. is to achieve the greatest therapeutic effect with the least load on the body by enhancing the specific and weakening nonspecific components of the action of physical factors.