What is a penny? The history of the origin and disappearance of this coin
Money exists almost as much as mankind. Once there were various things as furs, livestock, products, jewelry. In a word, all that could be exchanged for the goods needed at the moment. Of course, such "money" was not the most convenient for people - they had a lot of weight, volume and, at times, it was problematic to take them somewhere.
Over time, with the expansion of market relations and options for the sale, people have moved to the exchange and calculation of precious metals in the form of ingots - gold and silver. In some places they were even copper.
At first, the merchants changed them among themselves, simply on the basis of the size and weight of the precious stones, bars, or rings.
So, for example, it is known for certain that in Ancient Greece, the calculation with iron bars was popular. And in Italy - heavy copper ingots. A large burial of bronze arrowheads was found in the Northern Pontic, which historians believe was also a local currency.
But returning to the topic of our article, we will answer the question - what is a penny. And consider the story of the emergence of the first real money.
How did the first money appear
As can be seen, the appearance of the first monetary units was preceded by a rather long historical process. And once, metal coins replaced the bars, bars and rings. They first appeared in Greece and gradually spread throughout the world in all their diversity.
The coins were minted from the purest gold, silver, bronze, alloy of gold and silver. So somewhere abroad and the first penny appeared.
And now we will answer in more detail the question of our article - what is a penny. This coin was rather massive and heavy. Cast it from real silver. Grosz had a great buying power, for those times. By the way, isn't it interesting, if this money was valued so dearly, then why then now there are expressions that say just about the very low cost of the said money: "worthless", "live on pennies", "not worth a damn "," not worth a penny "?
The history of the first counterfeiters
Over time, the embossing began to deal with all and sundry.The bankrupt rich people, merchants and barons opened their own mints, bought silver coins, melted them. The resulting silver was diluted with another, cheaper metal, and began minting new coins. Of course, at first the impurity was small. But over time, with each subsequent coinage, it became more and more, and the value of the coin plummeted.
In the end, pennies became the smallest coin, with a meager cost. And he, of course, stopped being valued.
Therefore, answering the question - what is a penny - you should immediately recall all its background, only then the answer will be as faithful and fair as possible. After all, even the word "penny" is translated as "fat denarius." This coin, initially was not so cheap, it was spoiled by people who wanted to profit.
By the way, counterfeiters, who so shamelessly "spoiled" silver and gold, were severely punished: they were tortured, imprisoned, and quartered. However, this did not hinder the prosperity of this black craft.
Grosz in Russia
In our country, this coin appeared approximately in the middle of the XVII century. Initially, the word "penny" on the coins was not minted.Simply conditionally, in the people, two kopeks equated to one penny. And in 1657, under Alexey Mikhailovich, it was minted officially.
Later, penny was released in 1724 under Peter the Great and in 1727 under Catherine the First. But what was penniless at the time? This was a small changeable coin of copper, which was used mainly as a trifle. She did not have special value, but it was still possible to buy something for pennies.
In the 19th century, silver was used in coinage, and the penny depreciated altogether. It became a useless “dummy”, without weight and value, and gradually completely left the country's monetary system.
How are things now
Today, this coin is very rare. She is very appreciated by collectors. The cost of a penny varies from 75,000 to 85,000 thousand rubles. Numismatists of the whole world willingly acquire them in their collections.