What is military service? Commitment to military service
Since the moment when a person picked up a stick, heI realized that with her help you can achieve a lot. Therefore, often people try to achieve their goals through the use of violence to their own kind. In this case, we are talking about the origin of martial art, which a man honed throughout the entire process of his evolution. If you study in detail the whole human history, it becomes clear that it consists in many things from wars. People can not live constantly in peace and harmony. Some must dominate others - this is the law. Today it is difficult to imagine any country without an army. All states are trying to outstrip each other in terms of weapons. Along with the weapons themselves, military service is developing in a significant way, especially in recent times. This field of activity has always been in the spotlight, especially among men. In the 21st century, military service became even more significant, because the very principles of conducting military operations are changing. Thus, in this article, we will try to disclose all aspects of military activity, as well as to answer the question what it is.
Concept of military service
Many people often wonder,what is military service. On the one hand, the essence of this sphere of activity is extremely clear, on the other - it nevertheless has some specific features. Military service is one of the types of state activity of citizens. This activity is carried out on a professional basis. Citizens hold positions in the armed forces, and also have special ranks. Military service has specific tasks and functions, the most important of which are the defense and security of the state. It should be noted that the fact that servicemen do not necessarily recognize people who work in positions in the armed forces. If the military formation was created in accordance with the existing legislation, the service in it is also ranked as military.
Forms of military service
Military service in all countries of the worldit is built completely differently. Everything depends on the continent, the specific country and the political situation. To date, the most popular is the service in the army under contract. This is one of the types of professional approach to the organization of national defense. This form of military service has proved its effectiveness over time. As practice shows, soldiers working under contract in the army are more responsive to the service, which affects its immediate implementation. As for the Russian Federation, then the passage of military service is carried out through universal military service. This form is very outdated, so many countries abandoned it after the end of the Cold War. The professional army of small numbers is much better than the draft, even in wartime conditions. This fact is confirmed by military conflicts, which very often arise today.
History of military service on the territory of Russia
If we examine in detail the history of our country,then we can distinguish the stages in the development of military service in parallel with the general historical development of the population. The time of the establishment of regular, state armed forces can rightfully be recognized in 1699, when Peter the First actually created a fleet and an army. At that time, the term of recruitment was 25 years.As the military service develops, this termdecreased. The main problem of that time was the absence of a single normative act that would regulate the work of the armed forces entirely. Today there is a Federal Law "On Military Service" that allows it to streamline its activities.
After 1917 in the first constitution of the Sovietsthe principle of compulsory military service was fixed. With the historical development of the Soviet Union, military service has evolved and evolved. This led to the fact that the Union had one of the most powerful armies in the world in the mid-20th century. Many who passed military service in those times, speak about a high level of training of soldiers of absolutely all structural echelons. After the collapse of the USSR, the "federal period" for the development of the army in Russia begins. He received not only a new name, but also found its own characteristics.
The Federal Period of Military Service Development in Russia
Today the military service of citizens in Russia isone of the types of public service. As mentioned earlier, it has a professional character. Citizens can serve in the Armed Forces of, or rather in the structural units of this formation. According to the Federal Law "On Military Service," persons performing military service are servicemen. As a consequence, they are subject to laws and other regulations governing activities in the defense of the state.
Legal basis of military service
Like other types of government activities,Military service is regulated by a whole system of normative legal acts. Thus, the legal instruments regulating this field of activity are the following state acts:
- The Federal Law "On the Status of Servicemen""On Military Duty and Military Service", "On the Material Responsibility of Servicemen". These legal acts best answer the question, what is military service.
- Decree of the President of the Russian Federation, which regulates the order of service in the Armed Forces.
- Regulations on the procedure for military-technical cooperation of the Russian Federation with foreign states.
- Instruction on the order of organization and performance of military personnel attestation.
In addition, it should be noted "root"a normative act that regulates public service in Russia in general. A similar document is the Federal Law "On the Civil Service of the Russian Federation".
Status of serviceman
The existing law on military service and othernormative acts in this sphere of citizens' activity fix the specific legal status of servicemen. In accordance with the normative acts, which were presented above, the actual implementation of the legal regime of this activity is carried out. However, it should be noted that not every person knows what this status implies. If we turn to the theory of law, then any legal regime is a set of rights and obligations of a certain subject. The problem is that there is no single law on military service, which would list absolutely all the existing rights and duties of soldiers. All that the author will present later in the article is only a systematized "collection" that helps to understand the legal status of civil servants of this type.
Duality of the legal regime
The status of a serviceman is not onlylegislative level, but also actually protected by the state. But the very essence of this legal regime is specific. Features are traced in its duality, based on the division of existing rights and responsibilities. In general, the whole array of rights, freedoms and duties of the military can be divided conditionally, referring to many factors. To date, there are two main reasons for the separation of competencies:
- First of all, any serviceman iscitizen of the state to which he serves. As a consequence, he is endowed with birth with an array of common rights and duties that all citizens have without exception. But to become a full-fledged soldier, you need to be fit for military service. This fact determines the presence of a special subject in these legal relationships.
- The second circumstance is thatThe military is entrusted with the task of realizing specific functions for the defense of the state. Such tasks must be carried out in any conditions, regardless of the season and other factors. As we understand, such circumstances carry a risk to human life and health. As a result, the regime of legal regulation of the activities of military personnel is supplemented by special powers.
Thus, the legal regime that determines the functioning of the armed forces has its own internal features. With his help, you can answer the question, what is military service.
Rights and duties of military
In accordance with the position held and the titleeach serviceman has a lot of rights and duties, which, in turn, have their own specifics depending on the type of troops, units, etc. They allow to realize those functions and tasks that are directly assigned to them.
It should be noted that the rights and duties of the militaryservice, are regulated not only by federal laws, but also by military regulations, instructions, manuals, etc. A specific source of regulation of the competence of members of the armed forces are written instructions of direct supervisors. There is an unofficial division of all rights and duties into ordinary and special. Ordinary competencies are directly realized by the military under normal conditions of service, or, more precisely, in peacetime. Special rights and duties arise during the time of combat duty, service in the attire, liquidation of the consequences of a natural disaster, in the conditions of wartime.
When a person becomes a soldier, his position in the system is determined by the following elements:
- the presence of a certain title;
- compliance with the state of a military unit or other military authority.
The position of the staff is a document,which determines the numerical composition of the body or part. In other words, the state is a description of the number of vehicles, personnel and weapons of the unit. As for military personnel, they enter the state on the basis of their position. The latter is a set of rights, duties, functions and tasks that are inherent in a particular person. As a rule, one or another position is occupied by a soldier only if he approaches it according to his professionalism and state of health (fitness for military service).
Every military man has a military rank. In the state civil service, ranks and class ranks are analogous. Military ranks correspond to the list of positions to which they relate. In other words, a serviceman must take the necessary position to obtain a particular title.
There are also special lists, wheresome posts are indicated, which can be replaced by civilian personnel or female soldiers. Such positions are due to the specific nature of the work that they are obliged to perform.
So, we tried to answer the question, what is military service.Features attributed to a busy specificstate activity, it is necessary to study, since the function of state defense is one of the highest priorities for today. Of course, the sphere of defense requires constant reform, which will not be possible if we do not thoroughly study the specifics of the functioning of this industry in the Russian Federation.