Who is a skeptic? Definition The relationship between the concepts of "skepticism" and "cynicism"
Now the question of who the skeptic is is as urgent as ever. Too much information circulates around the person daily. And he must have a healthy share of unbelief in everything that the media is talking about. In our article we will try to talk about the concepts of “cynic” and “skeptic”, about their interconnection and mutual influence.
Definition of the concept. First representatives
Skepticism is a philosophical trend that proclaims that doubt should be the basis of thinking. If the reader is frightened that we will now go into the philosophical jungle and get lost in them, then let him remain calm, for this will not happen.
To understand what skepticism is, one small example suffices, namely the image of Thomas the Unbeliever. An apostle who does not recognize the resurrection of Christ, until he was given irrefutable evidence, he is the real skeptic.True, in this case we are dealing with moderate skepticism, but there is also radial skepticism, which does not even believe the facts, guided by the saying of A.P. Chekhov: "This can not be, because there can never be." Thus, skeptics (briefly) are unbelievers.
Of course, we could talk about the origins of philosophical skepticism. Turn to Pyrrho, Montaigne, Voltaire, Hume. But we will not do this, fearing to tire the reader.
It is better to make a definite conclusion at this point. The question of who a skeptic is can be answered in two ways: on the one hand, he is a person who believes the facts and only them, but on the other hand, if a subject of this kind has been raised to an absolute, he only believes those external events the world, which he personally seems to be monolithic and irrefutable.
Experiments on extrasensory and skepticism
Everyone is somehow familiar with such phenomena as telepathy (reading of thoughts), telekinesis (movement of objects using the power of thought), psychometry (ability to read information about a person, touching things that belong to him). Few know that some of these phenomena were tested in the laboratory, and some carriers of supernormal abilities were tested.So, a person who believes the facts will admit the possibility of the existence of parapsychological forces, and the dogmatic skeptic will still look for a catch. It seems that you no longer want to ask, and who is such a skeptic? Therefore, go to the cynics.
Cynicism is a network of skepticism, thrown on the sphere of morality and culture.
Skepticism is a philosophical setting that helps the scientist and philosopher to cut off all that is unnecessary, misleading. When an intellectual engaged on the scientific front closes his office, leaving him a robe or any other work clothes, he does not change the grid of perception.
The dogmatic skeptic (ideally every researcher should be) in the real world turns into a burnt cynic. It always happens when a person is not equipped with an a priori belief in something. His consciousness (and, perhaps, the whole psyche) is governed only by those facts that can be proved.
Who is he - a skeptic, a cynic, and maybe both together? Difficult to decide, right?
One thing is clear: Freud destroyed many myths in the field of morality. First of all, the misconception that children are innocent. He also questioned morality as an autonomous spiritual entity, reducing it to human complexes. Of course, it was inherited by religion, and not only from Freud, but also from his students.
Karl Jung wrote that certain beliefs arose when the ancient man knew little about the surrounding reality, he needed at least some hypothesis to explain what was happening. By the way, in this thought of the creator of analytical psychology, there is nothing tarnishing the honor of a religious worldview.
Fritz Perls touches his statements not only ancient, but also modern people, and says: "God is a projection of human impotence." This definition needs clarification.
Few would argue with the fact that man is a grain of sand in the world. For himself, the subject, of course, is space. He thinks something, wants something, etc. Ordinary human affairs, but for some of us, a brick will fall on our heads, and that’s all - our thoughts, sufferings, and experiences have ended. And the most offensive in this is that the person, as Bulgakov said, is "suddenly mortal." And he can die from sheer trifles, absolutely anyone. It is not surprising that such a small particle of the world needs a powerful defender, therefore a man comes up with God as some strong and big father who will not give offense to his child.
Danger of skepticism and cynicism
So, it is time to sum up some of the results, and also to say why it is dangerous to be a skeptic and a cynic.
From the foregoing, it is clear that skepticism and cynicism do nothing special, they simply call to treat everything from the standpoint of reason, not faith. Therefore, if someone asks us, a skeptic is a person of what convictions, we will say that he is the one who does not trust anyone for the word and checks everything for strength by the forces of his intellect.
But there is in such a worldview and cunning. It consists in the fact that it is impossible to erect a building on emptiness. In other words, no matter how the last cynic and skeptic a person is, he still has some kind of secret faith, which feeds his manly mind. When she is not there, then she will soon appear, and then the current skeptic will become a believer. Someone will say, but what if a conviction in the existence of something higher does not come to a person? Then the adherent of cynicism will fall into the clutches of nihilism. In the latter there is also little good, let us remember at least the fate of Bazarov, and everything will immediately become clear to us.
We hope that the question of who the skeptic is, an exhaustive answer has been received. And in this sense, the reader is left with no difficulty.