What is a hybrid war: concept, strategy
Modern implies different interpretations of the concept of hybrid warfare. The unified and generally accepted definition of this term is missing. What can be learned from the work of various political figures? What is a hybrid war in their understanding? Find out in the article.
The phrase hybrid warfare, translated from English as “hybrid warfare,” was first used in the United States in the last century. It was understood as a military strategy that combines conventional and information warfare.
How to wage a hybrid war
Hybrid warfare involves integrating military and non-military tools into a campaign that is effective at the expense of its suddenness and initiative. The hybrid warfare is based on the strategy of rapid information, electronic, economic and cyber-pressure on the enemy - the nature of the war is directly indicated by the word “hybrid”, synonymous of which are such words as “mixed”, “local”.
The use of informational and ideological methods of influencing a part of the population, differing in protest potential, complements the hidden military measures (information confrontation, special military operations).
Hybrid War: How to Kill a State
There is a well-established notion of revolution in military affairs, implying fundamental changes in the scientific and technical base, developing the armed forces, methods of fighting and military actions.
Nevertheless, in modern conditions for waging war, there is no need for a revolutionary military breakthrough: an alternative to the classical method of destroying the enemy is a hybrid war. It is a unique organizational model used to resolve issues of a military-political nature. Particularly attractive is a hybrid war for actors who do not want to wage an open war. Instead of the classic confrontation in the political arena, hybrid war tactics are used.
What is a hybrid war: the main strategic positions
The tools used in the course of the hybrid war are distinguished by strategic planning, precise coordination of forces, and actual, covert, and sudden effects on the enemy.
In practice, actively used:
Information operations.Their goal is to influence the organs of the state and military apparatus. Conducting information operations helps to mislead the adversary, to disrupt the procedures associated with the exchange of data.
Operations of a psychological nature. Must suppress the moral and psychological state of the citizens, the morale of the military forces of the enemy. They are aimed at forming mistrust towards public authorities in public life, motivating them to conduct destructive actions.
Cyber attacks. Allow to disable the state and commercial infrastructure. The use of cybernetic attacks impedes the functioning of the strategic important objects of the enemy, allowing the “attacker” to gain unauthorized access to secret information.
Economic pressure. The introduction of sanctions, termination of investment.
Subversive and subversive operations. Supporting opposition movements at the level of organization, information, and financing is an essential aspect in the strategy of hybrid warfare. In addition, this type of war involves the active use of the protest potential of civilian masses.For example, the actor sponsors groups of terrorists and extremists, supports criminal and destructive-opposition forces.
Hybrid warfare from traditional is distinguished by enhanced use of modern information technologies by external forces - this helps the “attacker” to distort information, falsify events, spread false information, throw fabricated facts into society.
Dirty social technologies are applied to all spheres of public life of the adversary state: political, economic, cultural and social.
How can you resist a hybrid war
A state suffering from hybrid attacks must make a series of efforts to restore security in politics, the economy and society.
Creation of organizations whose activities will contribute to the conduct of counter-hybrid hostilities.
The introduction into the state system and structure of the Armed Forces of special units designed to carry out response and preventive information and psychological operations.
Counteraction to hybrid war technologies and color revolutions at the national legislative level.
Control media distributed in the media (including social networks and blogs) in order to filter out distorted facts, news, literature, etc.
Preventive actions to block financial, informational and organizational channels that belong to foreign, oligarchic, radical and extremist-opposition structures.
International information cooperation with allied countries in matters of military affairs, economics, information and psychology.
Systematic support of neutralizing operations against wars against the state.
The quality of a hybrid war largely depends not only on the technological developments of the attacking state - an important aspect in the effectiveness of the actions being taken is a high level of information technology development and experience in working with them.
Hybrid War: here and now
To the question of what a hybrid war in a modern context is, political scientists answer as follows: the phenomenon of hybrid war is multidimensional. Its distinguishing feature is the integration into the attack procedure of various areas of military affairs: on information, economic,political and socio-cultural level - this phenomenon manifests itself in a complex.
In other words, the international actor acts on several fronts - this complicates the position of the state receiving the strike, since it must take a number of multidirectional and counteracting attacks.
Actor leading a hybrid war - what is he
Of course, modern hybrid wars are common in the political arena. They are distinguished at first glance innocuous tactics. The so-called smart approach to the conduct of a hybrid war, the essence of which is reduced to the absence of full-scale clashes of the armed forces and regular armies. The fundamental level in conducting hybrid military operations is mainly the civilian aspect. For example, color revolutions. The latter are the basis of modern hybrid wars.
Color revolutions are attractive to the “attacker” because their strategy is to use the destructive technology of dismantling the political regime. There is a shift of emphasis and the enemy uses the protest potential of the population. The secondary role is played by the use of rebel and special forces, the conduct of operations of a hidden nature.
Hybrid warfare: bright representatives
What is a hybrid war is explained by political scientist P.A. Tsygankov. He notes that the foreign policy of the United States and Western European countries is characterized by "hybridity." The latest armed conflicts are built on the idea of a hybrid war. Such behavior in the international political arena allows political elites to maintain a dominant position in modern and future world politics.
Behind methods of application of information and communication technologies hide military systems of high-precision combat forces of the American army. Cognitive technologies are one of the ways to turn the media into a psychotropic weapon that can massively hit people's minds. Diplomacy in a hybrid war is a game used to formalize the political will of the “attackers”. The main goal of the hybrid war is to gain control over the territory of a certain state, completely eliminating the independence of its internal control system.
Hybrid warfare is a military-political phenomenon. It includes propaganda actions, acts of intelligence and espionage, the organization of riots within the country.This type of war also makes “unconventional” a political-economic pressure on the state within the international political arena.