We study interesting historical facts: how there was a holiday on March 8
The holiday of March 8 is associated with each of us withspring, flowers, beauty and tenderness. But very few people know that initially this date had a political connotation, as it is the day when revolutionaries announced their intention to fight for the rights of women all over the world. How it was? How did the holiday appear on March 8? Let's talk about this in this article.
How it all began?
In the distant 1857 in the city of New York onWorkers of factories for the production of footwear and clothing came out to manifestation. At that time, their working day was a full 16 hours a day, and wages were minimal, it did not even meet the subsistence minimum. Female workers put forward such requirements: a ten-hour working day, improvement of working conditions (dry rooms, new equipment), increase of labor remuneration, participation of women in election campaigns. And so, on March 8, 1857, hundreds of toilers of America came to the rallies. This march of protest gave positive results: employers revised the requirements for female workers, reduced the working day to 10 hours. In addition, at many enterprises, the first trade union organizations emerged, headed by representatives of the weaker sex.
Where did the 8 March holiday come from? We say "Thank you!" for this Clara Zetkin
In 1910 a conference was held in Copenhagen,in which women socialists from many countries took part. Clara Zetkin in her speech made a proposal to declare the March 8 date the International Women's Day. The idea of the holiday was to show the whole world that women are ready and able to fight for their rights. Representatives of many countries supported this proposal. Since then, the revolutionary Clara Zetkin is considered the author of the idea of celebrating a woman's day.
The first "swallows"
Literally a year after the conference inCopenhagen, in early spring, women's day began to celebrate in many countries. March 19, 1911 this date was celebrated in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Denmark. More than one million people, both women and men, have appeared on the demonstration. As a result of these activities, the workers have achieved the right not only to participate in electoral campaigns, but also to hold managerial positions. In production, their work was valued and rewarded in the same way as men's work. In 1912, this event was celebrated on 12 May.
History of March 8 in Russia
In our country for the first time celebrated the InternationalWomen's Day in 1913. It happened in Petersburg. On March 2, in the building of the grain exchange, scientific readings were held, where questions were discussed about the right to vote for women, on the provision of maternity.
The idea of celebrating this date was brought to Russia by the revolutionary Alexander Kollontai. In our country, it was supported by millions of women who are ready to level with the strong half of humanity.
How did the holiday of March 8 in our countryso hard for her time? In the last days of February 1917 the toilers took to the streets of the cities to rallies. In their hands were slogans with the inscriptions "Bread and Peace." At the same time, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated power. The new government, among other promises, guaranteed equal rights for all women and men. This historic event happened on February 23, according to the old style (the Julian calendar). According to the new timing, the Gregorian, this is March 8.
The history of the origin of the holiday (as a state holiday) has its origin since 1918. This date was only a day off in 1965.
Traditions of the celebration of women's day in the Soviet Union
On this day all enterprises conductedceremonial meetings, where representatives of the government reported on the implementation of political programs against women. The best workers at these events were awarded with diplomas, prizes and valuable gifts. But over time, March 8 is just a women's holiday, losing political meaning.
International Women's Day in the countries of the former USSR
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, March 8to mark did not cease. It remained the International Women's Day in such CIS countries as Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Belarus, Turkmenistan. During the day Mother began to call this holiday in Uzbekistan. In Armenia, the date has its name - Day of Motherhood and Beauty, celebrate it in the second month of spring, April 7.
Women's holiday in other countries: traditions
Continuing the theme of how the holiday came about 8Martha, it's interesting to know how they celebrate such a day in different parts of the world. And the idea of holding it is quite unusual. For example, in China, Women's Day is a weekend only for the fair sex. Traditions of this country allow ladies to walk and have fun, and men go to work, and after that they also prepare a festive dinner. In Colombia on this day, representatives of the strong half of mankind are forbidden to go out on the streets, so as not to spoil their presence with a holiday for women. In Italy young ladies gather in large companies and walk noisily in entertainment institutions without their second half, thus demonstrating independence and independence.
How did the holiday appear on March 8? From the article you learned that the process of the International Women's Day was very difficult. But thanks to the courage and strength of women workers, we have the opportunity every year in the beginning of spring to celebrate a good date, symbolizing, in our understanding, beauty, tenderness and love.