Uncovered grape varieties for the Moscow region: description, care
Until recently, grapes were considered solely an attribute of the southern regions of Russia. The fact that it can be grown in the regions of the middle zone was thought only of certain categories of dreamers. Actually, it is thanks to them that today we have uncovered grape varieties for the Moscow region. Of course, they can be grown not only near the capital, but also in other regions of our country, which are more or less similar in climatic conditions.
Fans of gardening quickly found out that the rather harsh winters of our places are not a hindrance to the cultivation of the “sunny berry”. Even beginners have every chance to get a grape harvest in the second year of planting. So, what do we need to achieve such an attractive goal?
The main tasks of the gardener
In general, it is important for you to find out for yourself only two main points: where to plant and what non-covering grape varieties for the Moscow region are preferable to use.Strangely enough, but the widespread opinion that it is impossible to grow a vine in the shade is wrong: in such conditions, the berries still grow, but their taste and nutritional value decreases almost to zero. With proper planting, you will get excellent yields, without spending a lot of time and effort on it.
How to choose a place for landing?
Despite the fact that we talked about the possibility of growing vines in dark places, the normal area for planting should be sunny, well ventilated and, if necessary, have a drainage system in the ground. Something, but waterlogging will not tolerate any grapes for the Moscow region. In this case, varieties of non-covered breeding are no exception.
If your chosen plot has a bias, it's just great! In this case, try to position the ridges in the "south - north" direction. It would be even better if such a place is available in a well-lit, heated stone or brick wall.
In the event that there is no such possibility, it must be created: build a fence at any suitable place, orienting it from east to west. By the wayit was in this cunning that the secret of the ancient monastery growers was! There is no need to build something monumental: a “screen” of dry reeds or a well-dried picket fence will do.
It is important to remember that the uncovered grape varieties for the Moscow region, although quite unpretentious, are still sensitive to the quality of the soil, on which the method of planting the vine also depends. So, when finding a site on sandy soils, it is advisable to plant grapes in trenches, and in the case when there is even the slightest probability of waterlogging or the place you choose warms up for a long time in spring, the culture should be planted on high ridges.
Everything is simple here. Trenches are being dug about 0.6-0.7 m deep, into which good humus is poured. To make it easier for grapes to feed and carry out “targeted” watering, plastic bottles with a pre-cut bottom are digging into the ground between bushes. Important! If you grow table open grape varieties for the Moscow region, as the vine grows, you need to remove the bottle, replacing it with asbestos-cement pipes.
Wine grape varieties (as soon as they grow, of course) do not need them at all. The fact is that an adult wine vine must necessarily pull water from the soil. The deeper the roots of the plant lie in this case, the more it will receive mineral salts and trace elements, and this will provide a wonderful taste of the finished product.
Do not rush to immediately plant the vine in open ground. It is better to hold it in shkolke longer. In areas where frosts are possible for a long time, in the first year it is generally undesirable to transfer plants to “open-range walking”. It is better to hold them in buckets without a bottom, half buried in the ground. In the fall, “seedlings” are carried away to the basement, and in the spring, after the last frosts, they are planted in open ground. It is noticed that after such cultivation, seedlings begin to grow much earlier, and their resistance to adverse environmental factors is much higher.
Features of the location on the ridges
You should not plant grapes for the Moscow region (varieties of non-growing selection of which we describe) spontaneously. Planning the grouping of plants on the plot is extremely important.This is best done on the basis of the characteristics of a particular variety. We present the main recommendations:
- Between plants of wine varieties must be at least 0.8 m.
- For table varieties, the distance between the vines should be about 1.5 m.
- Regardless of the purpose of the grapes, maintain between the rows 2.5 m.
In each case, you should definitely specify the power of growth, because otherwise it will be difficult to find a really suitable distance. For your convenience, it would be better if you group the bushes by aging time and their real resistance to frost. It will be much easier to slightly shelter the young shoots of those varieties that still need a heap, and not individually. Almost all grape varieties for the Moscow region European breeding is undesirable to plant in an upright position. Initially, they need to be placed lying down. When the plants get stronger, they can gradually be transferred to their own roots.
Once again about the features of placement and watering
We should not forget about the property of vertical polarity, which is peculiar to grapes. Fruit-bearing arrows should be tied to the trellis exclusively in a horizontal position, which ensures the most uniform growth of the plant.If you tie up vertically, then only the upper shoots will normally go to growth, due to which the vine will stretch a lot, but the lower branches (most likely) will stop developing completely.
It is the same with irrigation, with which you need to be extremely careful. Only moistening of young bushes (up to two years), as well as autumn watering, which “charges” the soil with moisture, are considered mandatory. Remember that about seven days before the end of flowering water can not be poured at all, since the inflorescences in this case may well completely crumble, and the resulting berries will be small and tasteless.
Sprinkling is strictly contraindicated, as it provokes the development of diseases. Drainage channels should be placed no closer than 0.5 m to the base of the bush. Remember also that grapes do not like the wetting of the surface layer of the earth, as well as wet leaves. If there is an opportunity, make not only a fence near the plantings, but also a visor that will protect the capricious plants from the rain.
Trimming and other green operations
It is extremely important to carry out operations for forming bushes sparingly and just in time.All growth points at the same time cannot be deleted. The fact is that in this case all the winter buds can go up sharply, and this will sharply weaken the plant. Pasynki also should not be completely removed: you should always leave at least one sheet. The minting time is August, but only after the full and final straightening of the crown.
With all this, do not think that pruning is something dangerous. It is essential for grapes, because without this operation it gradually becomes smaller, and the berries become very small and tasteless. It is only important to remember that in the first year you do not need to prune anything, an exception can be made only for excessively stretched shoots. This pruning is only from the third year, but you should not mindlessly focus on general methods, and pay attention only to the specific conditions for the growth of the vine in your region.
In the fall, this should be done not earlier than stable frosts and negative air temperatures. It is strongly not recommended to prune in the spring, as the loss of juice greatly weakens the plant.
Briefly about varieties
And now we will discuss specific grape varieties for the Moscow region.We gave the main recommendations on their cultivation above, but you will certainly be interested in the peculiarities of a particular species. Important! Of course, these varieties are called unopen, but in the first year, the seedlings still need to be sheltered from particularly severe frost. Breeding by breeding, but still the plant is southern, and therefore do not particularly hope for its phenomenal stability in conditions of especially severe winter. So what grape varieties do not need to cover for the winter in the suburbs?
Excellent matures not only in the suburbs, but even in the northern regions. The only drawback is the relatively small size of the berries. Under the conditions of the Moscow region, it is already ripening by mid-August, and individual clusters can easily hang until October! The taste is slightly tart, with a nutmeg note.
Of course, today there are very good winter-hardy grapes for the Moscow region that are not covered, but Laura stands apart even among them. With large thunderstorms and berries, this species withstands even very cold winters and is well restored after frostbite. Berries are very sweet and tart. This form grows almost everywhere, never failing domestic growers.
The peculiarity of the variety is that it forms a vine very early.It has bunches of dark pink color. The berries are very large and sweet, ripen by the end of August.
It grows well from the first year in the open field, without the need for greenhouse aging. Bunches and berries are very beautiful, large and tasty. Maturation - in late August, resistance to disease and cold above average.
It is believed that these are not very suitable grapes for the Moscow region: varieties, non-covering care for which is their main feature, supposedly must withstand a large amount of precipitation. Some gardeners believe that Victoria's berries in such conditions are highly cracked, but in practice this almost does not happen. This is a very worthy variety with great prospects for northern cultivation. It has a very high resistance to cold, pests and diseases. Berries are formed a lot, and they almost simultaneously ripen around the end of August.
Clone Finds. Under the conditions of the Moscow region matures in mid-August. The variety has one insignificant disadvantage - the skin of the berries is relatively firm. However, is it a drawback? We discussed non-growing grape varieties in the Moscow region, but forgot to mention one circumstance: they are all a coveted trophy for wasps.But the variety Nakhodka is too tough for them! Berries remain whole for a long time, retaining all their properties.
This uncovered grapes in the suburbs proved to be just great! Differs not only huge berries, but also very early ripening. He, by the way, falls on August 7-8. Amazing dates for our latitudes!
Relatively young, but very promising variety. Some berries in this variety reach a size of 38–40 mm in length. Maturation - within August 20, sometimes a little later.
Completely condemns its name: an amazing combination of disease resistance, taste and size of berries. This uncovered grapes for the Moscow region can rightly be considered one of the best options. Matures in the second half of August.
These are the uncovered grape varieties for the Moscow region. The description of the main species we cited on the pages of this review. We hope that this information has been helpful to you. Finally, we once again emphasize one thing: the name “uncovered” does not imply absolute resistance to the frost of our climate.In the first year of the young vine necessarily cover, otherwise, otherwise the result will surely upset you!