Types of subcultures and their characteristics
Social sciences under the subculture understand the part of the culture that is different from the generally accepted one: the system of values, representatives, language. Subculture, as a rule, seeks to oppose itself to society, to isolate itself from its influence.
The concept itself was formulated in the 1950s in America. The article will consider the youth subculture, its types, ideology.
History and modernity
In the middle of the 20th century, the first youth informal associations appeared, based on musical preferences. The development of rock and roll, its new directions led to the emergence of such types of subcultures as the beatniks, hippies, rockers, punks, goths and others. In one form or another, these movements have retained their relevance.
In the XXI century, the basis of informal movements are not only musical tastes, but also various types of art, sports hobbies, and Internet culture.
If a few decades ago, belonging to a single stream was unambiguous, then now a fragmentary entry into one or the other informal society does not cause rejection and conflicts among the youth.
Among the modern types of subcultures there are the following areas:
- online cultural.
Under the art subculture understand the informal movements associated with creative expression, a hobby. This graffiti, and underground art, and role-playing games, and anime.
Graffiti is the most recognizable type of art subculture. Under it understand the inscriptions and drawings on the walls of buildings, entrances, metro stations. The modern graffiti movement originated in New York.
Many street artists in their works reflect acute social or political themes, someone creates real masterpieces on the walls of houses, and 3D-pictures popular in recent years on the streets of cities are striking in their realism.
Graffiti as a kind of subculture is quite popular among Russian youth. In the middle of the two thousandth in St. Petersburg was an international festival of this direction.
Roleviki - inhabitants of two worlds
Role players or historical reenactors are another direction of the art subculture.
At the heart of the role-playing movement is a fantasy passion or history.Each participant in the role-playing game is reincarnated into a certain character and acts according to the scenario. The game can be based on historical events as well as on fantasy works.
The participants try to repeat as reliably as possible the living conditions, costumes, crafts, battles of a particular era. Popular with the role of the Vikings, Ancient Russia or medieval knight battles.
A separate direction of role-playing are the Tolkiens - the fans of J.R. Tolkien. The participants of this subculture reincarnate in the characters of his books: elves, orcs, gnomes, hobbits, playing plots from the universe invented by the writer.
In normal life, the participants in the role-playing movement may not stand out from the crowd, but many prefer unusual decorations and clothes stylistically close to the character’s costumes, many start social media accounts on behalf of their hero.
Role playing is a kind of escapism, a way to escape from reality. For some, this is a rest from the daily routine, for someone - an alternative and more preferable reality. Among rolevikov can be found and teenagers, and people over.
Animes and Cosplayers
Another type of youth subculture is otaku. It is based on the love of Japanese animation and manga (Japanese comics). The participants of this movement not only passively watch cartoons, but also create their own, organize festivals and cosplay competitions.
Cosplay - reincarnation in a particular character anime, manga, movie or computer game. This is not only a reliable costume and hairstyle, many with the help of art make-up are trying to achieve complete similarity with the chosen hero.
Representatives of this type of subculture can be recognized by bright hair, attributes with your favorite characters. But again, not all copy the look of your favorite characters in everyday life.
For the movement of otaku in Russia is characterized by a specific slang, based on the use of words of the Japanese language. It can be like ordinary phrases - “arigato” - “thank you”, “saionara” - “goodbye”, and specific: “kawaii” - “cute”, “lovely”, or “nya” - expressing a huge range of emotions.
The age structure of anime artists is diverse - these are both 15-year-olds and people 20-30 years old.
In the concept of subculture types are inextricably linked with the development of musical genres.The first musical movement is considered to be rock-nilly lovers of the 50s of the 20th century - rockabilly. Bright and daring, they challenged the social foundations, winning their right to self-expression.
With the development of rock music in the 60s, hippies appeared, advocating for a world without wars, for love of nature and harmony with it. “Flower Children” preferred to live in communes, wore long hair, indulged in soft drugs and studied Eastern philosophy. Self-knowledge and the disclosure of their mental abilities, love of nature and non-violence form the basis of the hippie subculture.
In the 70s, a variety of genres of rock music gave the world punks, metallers. In the 80s there were Goths. In the 90s of the 20th century, the development of electronic music led to the appearance of ravers.
Common to various musical subcultures is a love for a particular genre, an appearance that replicates popular musicians, philosophy and values inherent in a particular music genre.
Punks are anarchists challenging social foundations
In the mid-70s of the 20th century, a punk movement was born. Its participants opposed themselves to society, expressed discontent with the political system.
The flagships of punk rock are the Sex Pistols, The Stooges (Iggy Pop), the Ramones. The music is characterized by dirty guitar sound, provocative texts and startling, on the verge and even beyond the bounds of decency, the behavior of musicians on stage.
Iggy Pop - one of the brightest representatives of the punk scene - in many ways laid the manner of behavior of musicians of this genre.
Punk as a subculture declares complete personal freedom, the rejection of generally accepted rules, the desire to rely on their own strength and not to be influenced.
Nihilism, non-conformism and shock - the features that determine the representatives of the punk movement.
Punk can be recognized by torn jeans, an abundance of metal jewelry, pins, rivets, chains, hair painted in a bright color, a mohawk or shaved temples, leather leather jacket.
Despite the fact that the punk movement originated in the distant 70s, it remains relevant in modern realities. The protest against social injustice, the call for personal freedom is what makes punk popular with young people.
Gothic - aestheticizing death
In the 80s of the 20th century, on the wave of post-punk, a new musical direction appeared - gothic rock. It gives rise to a new kind of subculture.
Goths are not so vehemently protesting against social injustice, they are moving away from the imperfect world, plunging into the mystical romance and aestheticization of death. They can be compared with the adherents of the decadence of the literary and artistic direction at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries.
Melancholy, dressed, as a rule, in all black, the Goths see the beautiful where the townsfolk do not notice it. Cemeteries and ancient cathedrals, grotesque, mystical-filled graphics, poems, glorifying decline, thrillers and horror films - an incomplete list of hobbies of representatives of this type of subculture.
Goths have a distinguished taste and a high level of aesthetic needs. They can be called snobs in rock music.
Black clothes of the Victorian era or more modern bows from latex and leather, make-up, the basis of which is a bleached face, on which black painted eyes and lips stand out clearly are the distinctive features of Goth.
Gothic rock underwent changes, branching out into several directions, and the whole subculture changed and expanded along with the musical genre. From classic The Sisters Of Mercy, Bauhaus, The Cure to London After Midnight, Dead Can Dance, Clan of Xymox, Lacrimosa.
In such countries as Great Britain, Germany, USA, in the countries of Latin America, the Gothic style has remained popular for several decades, in Russia the peak of popularity of this subculture occurred in 2007-2012.
Industrial subculture, types and their characteristics are discussed below.
Industrial subcultures include:
Diggers - explorers of underground military or civil structures, abandoned or active. It can be both air-raid shelters and abandoned bunkers inaccessible to metro station passengers.
This subculture has its own slang, which will be difficult for the uninitiated to understand.
Stalkers prefer to explore all sorts of abandoned objects, both civilian and military, ghost towns. The object of their interest may be the existing industrial zones, which are closed to citizens.
Stalkers are attracted by industrial landscapes, the special atmosphere of abandoned buildings. Many combine the fascination with stalking with photography or graphic art.
Representatives of this subculture are particularly secretive, most do not advertise the exact coordinates of the objects they visit, try not to post personal photos on the objects in the network.
The spread of the Internet has led to the emergence of such subcultures as “bastards” and the blogosphere.
The emergence of such an Internet phenomenon as "bastards" is associated with the site "Udaff.ru". It was his founder who first began to promote communication on the Internet with the help of specially distorted, misspelled words. Expressions such as the “author of fatal signs” quickly spread throughout the Runet.
Not only the violation of the norms of the Russian language, but also a particularly cynical attitude to everything that happens, ridiculing and devaluing even significant events is characteristic of the “bastards”.
The blogosphere as a direction of the Internet subculture unites people leading various blogs. It can be both channels on “YouTube”, and diaries in LiveJournal, partly publics and communities in social networks. Bloggers relate to a variety of topics: someone covers new movies and music, literature, someone writes about politics, someone runs a beauty blog.
Short list of subcultures
The list of types of subcultures most common in Russia:
- cyber goths;
Subcultures allow a teenager to find like-minded people, to better understand their inner world, but at the same time it is a kind of escape from reality.