Types of fluorescent lamps: description, characteristics, application. Fluorescent lights
Fluorescent lamp - a light source that has a type of gas-discharge. In it, an electrical charge using mercury creates radiation, which is quickly converted into visible light. This is done using a phosphor. As a rule, this device is a mixture of calcium phosphate with any other elements that allow you to achieve the desired effect. As a rule, the light efficiency of such a lamp is several times greater than that of ordinary incandescent lamps. The service life of such a device is about 5 years, if we take into account that the limit of inclusion will be no more than two thousand, if there are more than 5 inclusions per day, then the warranty period is 2 years.
It should be noted that such lamps are common:
- Fluorescent lights.This device at this moment is one of the most popular. They are used in street lighting, as well as in places where more light power is needed.
- Low pressure lamps. These are devices that are used for residential premises. Often such a gas discharge lamp will be a regular glass tube, which is coated with a layer of phosphor. As a rule, such a tube is filled with argon. Plasma displays are also a type of fluorescent lamp.
Depending on the type of fluorescent lamps, they can be used in various places. For example, in schools, hospitals and offices use daylight devices. When compact lamps with electronic parts appeared, they began to be used instead of incandescent bulbs in everyday life. Fluorescent lamps, as a rule, are convenient to use in the case of lighting a large area, if it is necessary to improve the conditions of light, to reduce electricity consumption by 50-80%. Also besides this, they are used to buy new lamps less often. Often, fluorescent lamps are used in the lighting of workplaces, in special light advertising and facade lighting.Before they began to use LEDs, they were the only source for working with liquid crystal displays.
Advantages and disadvantages
These advantages and disadvantages should be highlighted. The advantages should be noted high light output, as well as high efficiency. Depending on the type of fluorescent lamps, there are different shades of light. Also the supplied light is diffused. Long service life will appeal to many buyers. As a rule, in order to get long-term operation, it is necessary to properly operate the device. Among the drawbacks is the chemical hazard, since such lamps contain mercury.
Unfortunately, the linear emission spectrum is uneven and unpleasant to the eyes, therefore, it can cause distortion of the colors that are illuminated. Due to the fact that over time the phosphor is destroyed, there is a change in the spectrum, respectively, the efficiency of the device decreases. Often, to start the lamp you need to install extras, which are a choke for fluorescent lamps. The power factor of such a device will be unsuccessful for the mains due to its load.There are other minor flaws. However, these are the most critical.
The ancestor of fluorescent lamps are gas discharge devices. For the first time such devices were observed by Mikhail Lomonosov, when he passed a current through a balloon filled with hydrogen. It is believed at this time that the first gas-discharge device was created in 1856. A few years later, Nikolai Tesla patented the electric lighting system. Then it consisted of argon lamps and high frequency voltage. Similar lamps are still used. In 1894, another type of lamp was created using nitrogen and carbon dioxide. At that time, she glowed a pink-white light. This device was a success. The mercury lamp was first demonstrated at the beginning of the 20th century. Due to the fact that it shone with a blue-green tint, it was impossible to use it. However, its design at the moment resembles fluorescent lamps, which we review in this article.
More modern devices were created by General Electric, which bought Germer's patent. At the moment, this scientist is the creator of the modern device.In 1951, the scientist Fabrikant from the USSR took up the development of fluorescent lamps. For this he received an award.
Features of connection to the electrical network
It should not be forgotten that the choke for fluorescent lamps is still used today. Because of this, most often the equipment is expensive. However, this does not mean that fluorescent lamps are losing momentum. Any discharge lamp, unlike incandescent bulbs, cannot be directly connected to the network. In order to do this, you must use ballast. There are two reasons for this manipulation.
In a cold state, the lamp has a high resistance, and in order to ignite it, a pulse is necessary. In addition, this device has a negative differential resistance, so if the resistance is not included in the circuit, a short circuit will occur, as a result of which the lamp will simply stop working.
Reasons for failure
Often the power of fluorescent lamps is the reason why they fail. It should be recalled that the electrodes of such a lamp are a spiral created from a tungsten filament. From above, they are covered with a paste of various alkaline earth metal types. She gives the discharge, which is performed stably.When the lamp is working, this paste gradually peels off from the electrodes, burns out and, accordingly, becomes unusable. Intensively, it crumbles during start-up, if the discharge does not occur over the entire area. That is why fluorescent lamps have a finite service life, although much longer than conventional standard lamps. From here there can be a darkening at the ends of the lamp, which is intensified closer to the end of the service life. When the paste burns out, the voltage rises as sharply as possible, respectively, the circuit burns out.
Special fluorescent lamps
Also create special fluorescent lamps. The types of such devices will be discussed below.
We are talking about daylight devices that have the maximum kind of lighting. They serve to eliminate the effect of color mimicry. As a rule, they are used in printing houses, museums, dental offices, and so on, in order to maximally consider all the necessary details.
Another device that is a bit similar in its glow to sunlight. Such devices are recommended to be installed in rooms where there is a lack of sunlight.We are talking about banks, shops, offices. Due to the high color temperature, this device is ideal for working in medical institutions.
Another type of fluorescent lamp is one that is basic in aquariums. As a rule, it has a range of blue and red hues. Thanks to such a lamp, photobiological processes take place that must be maintained for the development of microflora. Also for aquariums invent special devices that emit blue color and ultraviolet. Often, such fluorescent lamps from Philips and other manufacturers are installed in expensive devices to impart a natural color to the inhabitants of coral reefs.