Types of dressings. Types of dressings and how to apply them
Even primitive people knew about the use of dressings as a means of protecting and treating wounds and injuries. Systematic historical data on the use of tissue, fibrous materials and medical compositions is even in the manuscripts of ancient physicians (about 450 BC. E.). Around 130-200 BC. er Galen has written a detailed guide on the use of various means for tying up wounds and laying tires on damaged limbs. The types of dressings in those days did not differ in diversity and were divided into mobile (tissue) and stationary (gypsum). In addition, plant parts were often used as a dressing material, and cloth was used as a fixative. Currently, there is a separate area of medical science - desmurgy, which studies various types of dressings, methods of their application and application.
What is a bandage?
This is a device that fixes a dressing on the patient's body surface, which has a long continuous therapeutic effect on the damaged external tissues.The basis of any type of dressing includes textile fabric of various density and healing substances that promote the healing of wounds or injuries. Some types of dressings contain mineral composite materials (gypsum) or solid elements that allow fixing body parts (tires, splints, etc.). The device can be contour, mesh, and kosynochnym and tensor. And this is not a complete list.
What is used in dressing?
A wide list of fabric and fiber means is used as a dressing material:
- hygroscopic gauze (sterile or non-sterile) is used for the manufacture of napkins, tampons, bandages;
- impregnated gauze for use in suppurating wounds;
- absorbent gauze;
- calico intended to impose tight bandages;
- tyleksol used to apply dressings to burns of any origin;
- Cotton wool, which can be cotton (bleached or unbleached), cellulose or viscose;
- elastic bandages;
- adhesive plaster
In most cases, several types of dressing material are used for dressing: impregnated gauze and gyroscopic gauze, cotton wool and gauze, and so on.
General rules of imposing
In medicine, there are several basic rules that must be applied when applying any kind of dressing. Consider them in detail:
- Before the procedure, it is necessary to clean the wound surface from foreign objects: dust, glass fragments, metal, earth and other things. To do this, you can use tweezers, gauze swabs, hydrogen peroxide or other disinfectant liquid that does not contain alcohol.
- The applied bandage must completely isolate the wound from the environment, that is, close its entire area.
- The device should not squeeze too much tissue or be too weak. An exception is a special compression bandaging for varicose veins, the imposition of a pressure or scarf dressing. In any case, the parts of the body below the bandaged area should not turn pale and lose sensitivity.
- Limbs must be bandaged, directing the coils of the dressing material from thin to thick: from the foot to the thigh, from the hand to the shoulder.
- Each subsequent coil of the device applied to the wound must overlap the previous one by half.
- If a cotton bandage is used, it is important to isolate open wound tissues from contact with fiber with a gauze cloth.
These points should be strictly observed when applying any kind of dressing. In the opposite case, the victim may develop tissue necrosis or wound infection.
When cuts and abrasions most often used gauze bandage in the form of a bandage. Bandages are long strips of cloth of various widths. Depending on their size, they are used for ligation of fingers and hands (5 cm by 5 m), limbs (10-14 cm by 5-7 m), abdomen, head, pelvic area (14-16 cm by 7-9 m) . When applying to small wounds, a gauze bandage can be fixed with a plaster, especially in places that are difficult to bandage, such as the elbow or knee joint, the interdigital space on the foot or hand, and also on the neck. It is recommended to place a small gauze napkin directly on the wound, and apply a bandage over it.
The plaster bandage is intended for fixing parts of the body and is used for bone fractures and ligament ruptures. As the main dressing material, a special gypsum bandage or ordinary gauze is used. In the second case, the doctor wets the tissue in a specially prepared solution.The plaster bandage should cover not only the fracture site, but also the joints nearest to it, which results in complete immobility of a part of the body and prevents the displacement of broken bones.
In case of burns, even small ones, a sterile bandage is recommended, covering the affected area of the tissue. The main material for isolating this kind of wound is gauze. There is no need to put a tight bandage on the burn, as this can slow down the healing process. Fixing a gauze cloth on the surface of the burns is carried out with a plaster, while it is important to ensure that its adhesive surface does not come into contact with the burned skin.
If the victim has blisters, the dressing is necessary using special moleskin napkins made in the form of a ring. A gauze bandage should be applied on top of them - this will prevent infection of the wound when the water bubble is opened. In case of extensive burns, a contour bandage is most often used with the use of special fabric materials that do not crumble to the damaged skin. Fixing them is practically not required.In case of burns, cotton wool and other fibrous products should not be used as a dressing material.
Bandage on the joint
Such a device should meet the following requirements: do not crawl or move, cover the entire surface of the wound, do not exert pressure on body parts during movement of a person. That is why the bandage is applied to the knees and elbow joints as follows: a gauze napkin is placed directly on the wound in its pure form or with any healing or antimicrobial agents, and fixation is performed by imposing an elastic tubular bandage on it. Currently, the industry produces dressings for elbows, knees, and even ankles.
Some injuries are accompanied by severe bleeding. In this case, the following types of dressings are used:
- Ring, if the wound has foreign objects. This device is applied as follows: a gauze cloth is placed on the wound, which is fixed with narrow bandages. It is necessary to ensure that foreign objects in the wound remain open.
- Pressing if there is a deep cut or puncture.
- Tensor, if there was amputation of the body part. This bandage is applied as follows: gauze is placed on the wound in several layers (at least 10), fixation takes place by applying thick elastic bandages. During bandaging it is important to monitor the tension of the strips of fabric - it must be very strong. Tensor bandage performs, in addition to the protective function, the role of tourniquet than prevents large blood loss.
As you can see, there are a lot of types of dressings today. It is not so important to know their names, how to learn how to apply them correctly.