The military doctrine of the Russian Federation: the main provisions and changes
The Decree on the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation was signed on December 25, 2014. This document acts as a fundamental conceptual act in the field of ensuring the country's defense. The military doctrine of the Russian Federation was approved in order to normalize issues relating to the use of weapons in the political interests of the state.
The military doctrine of the national security of the Russian Federation was the result of a broad discussion in the media and the WAGSH conference, where theoretical issues related to the use of weapons in the framework of state political activity were discussed. The need to form a single document, including key aspects of the problem, appeared at the end of the last century. By that time, almost all developed countries had already created a complex of regulatory documents of this kind. The main provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation were adopted in November 1993.
The essence of the concept
The existing military todaythe doctrine of the Russian Federation proclaims the officially accepted views of the leadership on the use of weapons to ensure the defense of the state. According to theoretical requirements, this document answers the following questions:
- With which opponents and how to prevent armed conflicts.
- What character can have a struggle, tasks and goals of the state and the army in the conduct of hostilities.
- What military organization should be created to resolve armed conflicts, and in what areas should it be developed.
- What forms and methods should be used in military operations.
- How to prepare the state and the army for war or the use of armed forces in conflicts.
The doctrine of military security of the Russian Federation is focused on the protection of the economic interests of the country. Its content is determined by the capabilities of the state to conduct armed conflicts. They, in turn, depend on the state of the economy, the level of development of scientific and technological progress and social infrastructure. The military doctrine of the Russian Federation performs information, organizational and regulatory functions.They define its key importance in matters of preparing the state and the army to protect the interests of the country using the armed forces.
The military doctrine of the Russian Federation in 2015 contains the term "deterrence system." It should be understood as a set of specific measures aimed at preventing aggression with the use of non-nuclear means against Russia. The document outlines the priorities of state policy in matters of defense construction. In descending order, they look like this:
- Nuclear deterrence with a relatively high level of forces with a focus on the first or counter counter blow. When reviving combat railway missile systems and enhancing the potential of percussion strategic submarines - to respond to the aggressor.
- Aerospace defense against massive strikes with precision non-nuclear means from America and its allies.
- Major regional level conflicts with NATO on the south-western, western and northern borders of Russia and the CIS.
- Regional struggle in the Far East.
- Territorial conflicts with Japan, a reflection of provocative single or random rockets.
- Local conflicts, peacekeeping operations within the state on the perimeter of the borders of Russia and in the post-Soviet space, activities in the Arctic zone and actions against piracy in the Indian Ocean.
In this matter, the military doctrine of the Russian Federation adheres to its previous position. Internal hazards include:
- Attempts to forcibly change the constitutional system of Russia.
- Destabilization of the social and domestic political situation in the country.
- Disorganization of the activities of state authorities, the most important military, government facilities, as well as the information infrastructure of the Russian Federation.
Of particular relevance today are the terrorist actions of bandit groups and other organizations. Fear also causes an informational influence on the population, aimed at undermining patriotic, spiritual and historical traditions in the sphere of ensuring the defense of the Fatherland, provoking social and interethnic tensions, inciting national and ethnic hostility.
As these, the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation recognizes:
- A sharp aggravation of interstate relations.
- Formation of conditions for the use of the armed forces.
- Hindering the activities of the military and government systems in the Russian Federation.
- Violations in the functioning of nuclear strategic forces, warning systems for rocket attacks, control of outer space, chemical industry facilities, nuclear energy, storage of nuclear weapons and other potentially dangerous areas.
- Education and training of illegal formations that use weapons against peace and order in society, their activities in Russia or in allied states.
- Demonstration of military power during training events in adjacent regions.
The military doctrine of the Russian Federation considers the activation of the armed forces of individual countries or groups of states with partial or full mobilization to be an important threat.
This part of the document has been subject to repeated adjustments. The change in the military doctrine of the Russian Federation was due to external circumstances, the growing threat of terrorism. These problems are associated with increased competition and rivalry in the world, the instability of global economic processes.An important role in increasing tensions is assigned to the redistribution of influence in favor of new power centers. A dangerous trend is also recognized for the shift of threats into the internal sphere and information space of Russia.
In the second section of the Doctrine it is noted that in some directions the military danger to the state is increasing. The document specifies the sources of external threats regarding the evolving situation set forth in the State Protection Strategy. This is, first of all, the buildup of military potential and the enlargement of the NATO bloc, the approach of its combat infrastructure to the borders of Russia, the destabilization of the situation in a number of countries and regions.
Defense Policy of the Russian Federation
It is set forth in the third, main section of the Doctrine. Under the country's defense policy should be understood the activities of the authorities to organize and ensure the protection of the territory of the state and the interests of allies. The third section clearly defines the focus of this work:
- Deterrence and prevention of armed conflict.
- Improving the country's army.
- The development of methods and forms of use of the armed forces, military bodies.
- Strengthening mobilization readiness to ensure the defense and protection of the territory of the state and the interests of its allies.
Military doctrine confirms that nuclear weapons that are at the disposal of the state are considered primarily as a deterrent to aggression. Russia reserves the possibility of using such weapons in response to the use of such against it or its allies. Nuclear power will also be involved in the event that the enemy’s conventional weapons threaten directly the very existence of the country.
Questions of the use of force
They are also reflected in the third section of the document. The military doctrine recognizes the use of force to repel aggression, restore or maintain peace, and protect Russian citizens outside the country as legitimate. The activities of the armed organization will be carried out decisively, comprehensively and purposefully. The use of force will be based on an advance and constant analysis of the military political and strategic situation in accordance with all the requirements imposed by international law.
The third section clearly defines the main tasks that face the state’s military organization in peacetime, as well as in the face of increasing danger of aggression from other actors.
Its fundamental principles are set out in the fourth section. The current version of the document gives special attention to mobilization preparation and readiness. In the Military Doctrine, the objectives of the measures are clearly defined. They consist in preparing the country, the armed forces, organs and troops to ensure the protection of the territory and population of the state from attack, as well as to meet the needs of citizens during hostilities. This indicates that the political leadership takes into account the growing likelihood of Russia being drawn into a large-scale war. This, in turn, will require the full mobilization of the armed, economic and moral forces of the state and citizens. In this case, we mean not so much the army as the country as a whole.
This issue is devoted to the fifth section of the document. The military-economic support of the defense complex is aimed at creating conditions for stable development and maintaining the country's potential at a levelwhich is necessary for the implementation of the adopted state policy. The main tasks in this area are:
- Equipping the army and military bodies with weapons, special equipment.
- Provision of material means. With the immediate danger from the aggressors - retrofitting of troops in accordance with the norms of wartime, in peace periods - the accumulation, separation and maintenance of stocks.
- Restoration of the loss of equipment, weapons, materiel during combat operations.
- Improving the defense industry, ensuring the independence of the country, the formation of a complex of technologies of paramount importance, the intensification of innovative investment activity, the preservation of state control.
- Fruitful and mutually beneficial cooperation with interested countries for the exchange of advanced ideas and profit for the defense industry.
The military doctrine formulates clear guidelines on the forms, methods, procedure for using armed force to ensure the protection of sovereignty, the constitutional system, territorial integrity, and the national interests of the state,fulfillment of allied obligations, conditions of international treaties.