The invention of radio: history and discoverers
In the digital world, radio is still used. Although it is also gradually becoming a digital standard. How did it come about? When scientists think they know everything about a field, a discovery happens that radically changes the situation. It happened to the radio. At the end of the XIX century, physics was considered a fully studied science. But the coup was close. In short, the invention of radio is associated with the names of two scientists: Marconi and Popova. But more about that in order.
The concept of radio is not unique. Literally, it means "radiate."
- First, it is a way to send messages without the use of wires.
- Secondly, it is a sphere of science, technology.
- Thirdly, it is a mass medium of information dissemination.
Who worked on the invention of the radio? Physicists who worked on the problems of electromagnetic waves. There were several such scientists. They studied wireless issues at about the same time, which is why it is so difficult to determine who was first.
The invention of radio gave impetus to the further development of mankind. The discovery showed how little people know about the world in which they live.
In the XIX century, scientists were enthusiastic. Everyone was especially impressed by the knowledge of Maxwell's electrodynamics. He proved (only in theory) that waves must be in space. The scientist understood that they are able to spread at the speed of light. He was able to predict some of their properties. Professor Heinrich Hertz also became interested in this theory.
A scientist from Karlsruhe created the equipment to receive and propagate these waves. Maxwell's predictions were confirmed in practice. Hertz published his results in 1886. They were interested in the physics of the most famous world universities. They repeated the experience and improved the equipment.
Scientists of minds understood that wireless data transmission could have enormous benefits. Telegraph and telephone changed people's lives, but the wires made them unreliable. Thoughts on the invention of the radio were in the air. Inventors could not ignore the need to use the existence of waves for their own purposes. It remained to create a suitable device.
Devices Branly and Lodge
Both scientists continued the work of Hertz. They put their efforts to the invention of radio. Only their devices could not become receivers for technical reasons. They could not steadily receive telegraphic messages.
It is worth mentioning the names of other scientists who simultaneously conducted their research and development: Hughes, Edison, Tesla, Rutherford.
Alexander Popov was born in 1859 in the family of a village priest. He graduated from the University in St. Petersburg, becoming a mathematician. Even planned to engage in academic activities, but carried away by electrical engineering.
At the Naval School, he got acquainted with the works of Hertz, repeated his experiments. In 1886, he was able to transmit a signal inside the university building, demonstrating this to the Physical community.
After that, he became interested in X-rays. He continued his work on the invention of radio in 1896. He began to cooperate with the naval forces. Together they managed to make a signal transmission for ten kilometers. A year later, the signal has already passed fifty kilometers.
For his invention, Popov did not receive special recognition.Information about him, as a pioneer, came much later. In today's textbooks of Russian physics, he is considered the inventor of radio. But at the same time a scientist from Italy created the same thing.
Marconi. Putting the idea into practice
Another scientist with whom the history of the invention of radio is related is Guglielmo Marconi. He studied physics at Livorno (Technical School), where he became acquainted with the works of Hertz.
In 1894, he managed to repeat the laboratory experiments of the predecessor. He understood the system of work and in the same year managed to transmit a message over a distance of two kilometers. In his native country, his work was not shown due interest, so Marconi moved to London. In 1896, he passed the message ten kilometers away. He received a patent and founded his own company. It was the report on the patent that prompted Popov to continue the abandoned business.
In 1901, an Italian scientist transmitted a signal across the Atlantic. The transmitter was in Cornville, and the receiver was in Newfoundland. The result of the experiment became a sensation for all industrialized countries. European entrepreneurs are interested in opening.
Russian and Italian scientists have developed knowledge of Herzen almost at the same time. Their experiments took place independently of each other.Both can be considered pioneers in radio engineering. But Marconi was able to continue his activities. This was due to the fact that he lived in a state that is interested in the profits from new inventions. Popov also worked in a country that paid little attention to technical progress. After his success, he took up other work. Marconi embodied his idea into practice. For which he was awarded the Nobel Prize.