The first prince in Russia: politics and economics
The question of who in the history of the first prince of ancient Russia, is still relevant. That's because historians have different attitudes to this topic. Some believe that answers should be sought for the "Tale of Bygone Years", which belongs to the pen of the famous chronicler. Others say that the information described in this manuscript cannot be considered 100% reliable and should be checked and not stopped. In this article, we will present many different facts and assumptions about this issue.
The first testimonies appeared in the first third of the 9th century about the Rus country. For example, in the annals of 839 one can find information about the ambassadors of the kagan of the people who grew up, first arrived in Byzantium, the city of Constantinople, and from there went to the Frankish emperor Louis the Pious. It was this year that the ethnonym "Russia" was found for the first time in historical writings. However, in “The Tale of Bygone Years”, the first campaign of Rus to the shores of the Bosphorus dates back to 866, which, according to some scholars, is an erroneous date.
There is information that already in 862 the Slavic and Finno-Ugric tribes began to wage internecine wars among themselves. About this in the "Tale" is written: "Stood kind of genus." However, none of them could beat the others. But ordinary people suffered, innocent women and children died, and, naturally, the question arose of how to stop this senseless war. And it was then that Slovenia, or Slavs, thought that only a foreign ruler could solve this question. They gathered an embassy and sent it to the Varangians who lived on the shores of the Baltic Sea, which at that time was called the Varangian. They came to these lands and addressed the local princes with such a speech: “Our land is huge and plentiful, but there is no order in it. We ask you to come to our land, establish order and own us. ” Three of the Varangians — the brothers Rurik, Sineus and Truvor, who were called Russ or dew — used the invitation of the Slavic delegates and went to their land. Among them was the future first prince in Russia. For about two years, the brothers tried to adapt to the new conditions, then they had to fight, sometimes punish for disobedience, then sit at a friendly table and share bread.Rurik reigned in Novgorod, Sineus reigned Beloozero, and Truvor ruled in Izborsk. Some of the locals were glad of their arrival, and someone was against it. Two years later, two of the brothers - Truvor and Sineus - died. Thus, it was Rurik who was the first Varyag prince in Russia. He began to reign alone on the whole vast land inhabited by Slavic tribes. And since he and his brothers were called Rus, the land soon became known as Rus.
Khazars and Varangians are enemies and rescuers
According to another version, the call of the Varyags to the land of the Eastern Slavs was not due to civil strife, but to the onslaught of the Khazars. Their raids became unbearable for the locals, and they decided to find their salvation among the Varyags. Rurik - the first prince in Russia - having arrived with his brothers, he beat the Khazars, and began to reign. The capital of the newly formed state was the city of Novgorod. There is also a version that these three brothers are the younger sons of a noble family. According to European custom, only the elder brother received the inheritance, and the rest were left with nothing. That is why Rurik and his brothers decided to take advantage of the invitation of the Slavs.
Hike to Constantinople
In the same year of 862, the Varangians, who came with their brothers, were eager to move to the Mediterranean, and were joined by the warriors of Rurik, who is the first Varangian prince in Russia.Among them was Dir, as well as his friend and colleague Askold. They decided to go to Constantinople and establish a trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. For this, the prince subjugated Kiev. So says in “Tale.” But according to the Nikon and Novgorod Chronicle, Askold and Dir had nothing to do with Rurik. There is even a version that these two warriors are the descendants of Kyi -legendaryprinceDnieper glades. He is also the founder of Kiev.
Igor and Oleg
In Novgorod, Prince Rurik had a son, Igor. When in 879 he died, his boy was still a child, and therefore the reign was transferred to Oleg, he also became the regent of Igor. Some historians believe that this issue was not so simple, and the power in Novgorod was usurped by Oleg. Even when Igor grew up, he did not want to give him the reins of government. In a word, when the first prince in Russia, Rurik, died, Oleg took his place.
Some scholars believe that the Vikings are German, Danish, Swedish, Finnish or even Norwegian tribes. And the author of The Tale of Bygone Years meant that Rurik and his people lived on lands located to the south of Varyazhskoy, that is, the Baltic Sea, in an area that is located closer to Angeln and Holstein.On a modern map, these lands are located in the northern part of Germany. Can we conclude from here that the first prince in Russia, Rurik, is of German origin? We think not, and the ethnic groups that lived here are much closer to the Russians than to the Germans. By the way, among them are such names as Russ, or Varina, etc. Some European researchers believe that Rurik may have Swedish roots. However, Russian scientists see the political meaning behind this version and completely deny it. During the Livonian war between Sweden and Russia, Ivan the Terrible suggested that there was no blue blood in the veins of the Swedish king Johan the Third, and he reminded the Russian tsar that Rurik, the first Grand Duke of Russia, was Varyag and had Swedish roots. But in the 1st half of the 18th century, Petersburg academics with German roots spoke in favor of a version of German origin of Rurik and his brothers. This theory began to be called Norman, but Lomonosov, having studied this issue, came to the conclusion that it does not correspond to the truth and does not have any historical realities. And according to the "Tale" it is clearly seen that the Varangians and the Swedes, the Varangians and the Normans are different tribes.
Oleg - the first Russian prince in Russia
In 882, Oleg the Prophet, well known to us from the poem, regent of Prince Igor, son of Rurik, gathered a squad and headed from Novgorod to the south. Along the way, he captured Lubech and Smolensk and established his power in these cities. Oleg's squad consisted of the Vikings and the Chudi, Mary, Krivichi and Meri tribes. They headed towards Kiev and captured it, killing at the same time the former warriors of Rurik - Askold and Dir, who ruled this city. After that, Kiev was declared the capital of the state of Oleg, and the tribes subject to the Novgorod land had to pay tribute to it. Oleg began to build fortresses around his capital. About this event there is evidence of the chronicler, according to which Oleg, the first prince of Kievan Rus, spread his power in the lands of northerners and drevlyans by force and weapons, and the Radimichi tribe accepted its conditions without struggle, preferring to pay tribute to Oleg rather than the Khazars. And those, in turn, began an economic blockade against them, cutting off the path of Russian merchants through their lands.
Hike to Byzantium
At the beginning of the 10th century, Russian troops led by Prince Oleg made a victorious march on Byzantium.As a result of this, written agreements were concluded on preferential terms of trade for merchants from Kievan Rus. Historians believe that the success of Oleg's troops can be explained by the fact that he managed to rally the forces of all the tribes inhabiting the young ancient Russian state, thereby strengthening its statehood. Oleg, who had the title of Grand Duke, ruled Rus for more than 30 years. After him, the son of Rurik, Prince Igor, ascended to the throne. This happened in the year 912 (the year Oleg died). Historians argue which of them - Oleg or Igor - the first Grand Duke of All Russia. The first one can be called one according to merit, and the second one - by origin, since it is he who is the son of the founder of the Russian state.
The son of Rurik, after he headed the state, made 2 military campaigns against Byzantium. Initially, he started a military campaign against the Khazars, where he was involved by Byzantium. However, there he suffered a defeat, after which the army of Igor turned weapons against Byzantium. However, the Bulgarians managed to warn their allies, the Greeks, that the ten thousandth army of Prince Igor was approaching Constantinople. Nevertheless, the Russian fleet managed to plunder Bithynia, Herakleia, Paphlagonia, Nicomedia and Pontic, but was defeated.After that, the Grand Duke, abandoning those who survived in Thrace, with his entourage on several rooks, fled to his capital. Later he was informed that the soldiers he had left in Thrace were taken to Constantinople and executed. From Kiev, he sent an invitation to his allies, the Varangians, to join him and make a new voyage to Byzantium, which he carried out in 944. The army of Igor included the meadow, Kryvichi, Slovenian, Tivertsy, Varangians and Pechenegs. They reached the Danube, and from there Igor sent ambassadors to Constantinople, who managed to conclude a duty-free trade agreement. Russia, on the other hand, undertook to protect the possessions of Byzantium in the Crimea. In 943-944 the army of the Grand Duke made a campaign against Berdai, and a year later Igor was killed by the Drevlyans, although there is a version that his governor Sveneld killed him because of disagreements while dividing the tribute.
The widow of Igor and the mother of the future Grand Prince Svyatoslav, after the death of her husband, took the reins in their hands, and then the prince of the Drevlyans Mal sent to her matchmakers. Olga considered it an insult and ordered the ambassadors to execute. However, this seemed to her not enough, and she, having gathered an army, in 946 besieged the fortress of the Drevlyane Iskorosten, which was eventually burned, and the Drevlyane were conquered by the Kievites. Olga overlaid them with a terrible tribute. This was her revenge.She did not forgive them that her husband, the first Prince of All Russia, was killed by their hands. In 947, Olga went to Novgorod, where she introduced a system of tributes and dues, according to which local residents themselves had to take them and give them to the tiuns (tax inspectors). It is thanks to her that since then the policy of the first princes of Russia has been peaceful towards Byzantium. Olga, the first of the rulers of the Old Russian state, officially adopted Christianity of the Byzantine rite in 957. He went to Constantinople. Emperor Constantine Bagryanorodnyy called Olga the arhontissa of Russia. The purpose of her trip was to achieve the baptism and the recognition of Russia by Byzantium as an equal Christian empire. After baptism, she was given the Christian name Elena. Nevertheless, historians claim that she did not manage to reach an agreement at that time, and then she sent ambassadors to Emperor Otto I to Germany with the request to establish a church in Russia. After that, Constantinople made concessions, and the German embassy had to return. After that, the Russian army sent by Olga-Helen supported the Greeks in the war with the Arabs in Crete. Olga died in the year 969.
Princes of all Rus
This was the name of the Russian sovereigns, who had a claim to sovereign power over all Russian lands, and the Kiev princes were called this title. However, at some period of time, Kiev was in decline, and then Vladimir became the main political and church center of Russia. After this, the princes of Vladimir were called the princes of "all Russia." In the Moscow period, this title did not suggest power over all the former lands of the Old Russian state, but only elevation over other princes.
First Moscow Prince of All Russia
Daniil Aleksandrovich is the ancestor of the Moscow princes belonging to the Rurik dynasty. He is the son of Grand Duke Alexander Nevsky. Daniel Alexandrovich inherited the princely title from his father in his very early childhood. He ruled Moscow Rus from 1263 to 1303. However, while he was too small to rule the state, his uncle Yaroslav Yaroslavovich did it for him. He also raised little Danilo after the death of his heroic father. From the age of 15, he began to actively operate within his principality. He was called the builder, and the fortifications built by him were very helpful in defending Moscow.
Victory over the Golden Horde
Slightly matured, he began to pursue his own policy, the main focus of which was the expansion of the possessions of the principality. He actively participated in the princely strife, and with his brothers Andrew and Dmitry for reigning over the Great Vladimir, well, for Novgorod. In 1285, he, united with his uncle, defeated the Horde army, and this battle went down in history as the first victory of the Russian army over the Golden Horde. After 15 years, he managed to unite Kolomna, Lopasnya and other lands along the Moscow River to the Moscow principality, and when confronted with Prince Ryazan Konstantin Romanovich, he took him prisoner. But Pereslavl-Zalessky was bequeathed to him by the prince of those lands. The first prince of all Russia, Daniel, the son of the legendary Alexander Nevsky, died in 1303.