He became one of the most prominent Orthodoxreligious figures, theologians who lived in the XVIII century and canonized in the face of saints and miracle workers of the Russian Church. Bishop of Voronezh and Yeletsky, St Tikhon of Zadonsky lived a complex and at the same time remarkable life full of spiritual fruits, for which he never tired of thanking the Lord. The saint lived very modestly, used scanty food and was not afraid of hard physical labor, but that was not what made him famous. His love for the Lord was so great that he devoted almost all his life to the ministry of God's Church on earth.
St. Tikhon of Zadonsk: Life
The future bishop, for now in the world Sokolov TimofeySavelievich, was born in 1724 in the village of Korotsk, Novgorod Province. The family was very poor, Father Saveliy Kirillov was a sexton. A new surname was given to Timofei at the Novgorod Seminary. He did not remember his father, since he died very early. On the mother's hands there were six children - four sons and two daughters. The elder brother, too, like his father, became a sexton, the middle ones were taken into the army. No funds were available, and therefore the whole family lived almost half-starving. Sometimes, when the house had absolutely nothing to eat, Timka for a piece of bread all day harrowed arable land from a rich man.
However, the childless often began to visit them, butrich coachman. He fell in love with Timka as a native and begged his mother to give it to him to raise him as a son and at the end of his life to write off his property to him. Mother was very sorry for Timothy, but extreme poverty and hunger forced her to agree. One day she took her son by the hand and went to the coachman. At this time, the elder brother was not at home, but when he returned, having learned from his sister that mother and Timka had gone to the coachman, he rushed that there were forces to catch up with them. And then, overtaking them, he knelt in front of my mother and begged her not to give Timka a coachman. He said that he would better go around the world himself, but he would try to learn his literacy, and then it would be possible to attach it to the sextons or the sextons. Mother agreed, and they all returned home.
In 1738, Timka's mother brought foradmission to the Novgorod Theological School. In the same year the parent died, and Timothy remained an orphan. At the request of his brother, a parishioner in Novgorod, he was enrolled in the Novgorod Ecclesiastical School, which functions under the bishop's house, which in 1740 was renamed into a theological seminary. The boy Sokolov as one of the best students immediately enrolled and transferred to the state maintenance. And then he began to receive free bread and boiling water. Half of the bread he ate, and another sold and bought candles to read spiritual books. The children of wealthy merchants often laughed at him, for example, they will find the drowning of his bast shoes and wave them over him instead of the censer with the words: "We magnify thee, the saint!"
He studied in seminary for 14 years and finished itin the year 1754. The thing is that there were not enough teachers in the seminary. Having studied four years of rhetoric, theology and philosophy and two years of grammar, the future prelate Tikhon Zadonsky became a teacher of the Greek language and theology.
Has tonsured and new appointments
In the spring of April 10, 1758, Timothy is tonsuredmonks named Tikhon Archimandrite Antony of the monastery of Parthenius (Sopkovsky). Inok was then 34 years old. And then he becomes a teacher of the philosophy of the Novgorod seminary.
January 18, 1759 he was appointed archimandriteTver Joltikov of the Assumption Monastery, and in the same year he receives the post of rector of the Tver theological seminary and teaches theology. And to all this, he is determined to be present in the spiritual consistory.
St. Tikhon of Voronezh Zadonsky: bishopric
An interesting event occurred beforethe way he was ordained on May 13, 1761, in the bishop of Kexholm and Ladoga. When it took a vicar to the Novgorod diocese, seven candidates were chosen for this place, and Archimandrite Tikhon entered it.
The day of the great Easter, which was dueA lot was cast and a candidate was appointed. Around the same time, Archimandrite Tikhon with His Grace Bishop Athanasius served the Paschal Liturgy in the Tver Cathedral. During the Cherubic song, the bishop was at the altar and seized the particles, Archimandrite Tikhon, like other sacred-minded people, approached him with the habitual petition: "Remember me, holy lord." Suddenly he heard the answer of Bishop Athanasius: "Your bishopric let the Lord God remember in His Kingdom," and then he broke off, adding with a smile: "God grant you to be a bishop."
In St. Petersburg at this time thrice thrownlots, and every time he fell out with the name of Tikhon. However, in this position he did not stay long, until 1762, and then he was transferred to preside at the Synodal office. Then the head of the Voronezh department was St Tikhon Zadonsky. The Bishop of Voronezh and Yeletsky Ionniki (Pavlutsky) by that time had already passed away.
Vladyka Tikhon was entrusted with managementThe Voronezh diocese, which included the Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Donskoi Fields in addition to the Voronezh province, at that time all this needed a serious transformation. And since the free steppes of the Don at the end of the XVII century became a place of shelter from the government persecution of sectarians and Old Believers, it was very difficult for the saint to struggle with the moods of the then church life. Obstacles to his good intentions were arranged by individuals of both secular power and the clergy themselves.
But it was important for Bishop Tikhon to preparea worthy legacy of intelligent and educated pastors, so he introduced strict statutory worship and requisite. Under his leadership, schools were established for the poor children of priests and for the priests themselves. On spiritual posts, he sought the worthy, cared not only for his flock, but also for the improvement and splendor of the temples.
Manuals and instructions
In the first year of service in the Voronezh diocese, hewrites a brief lesson for priests entitled "About the Seven Holy Mysteries", where he describes the true concepts of the sacraments being performed. A year later they create a guide on how to act to spiritual fathers in confession and how to awaken in them feelings of sincere repentance, and others who in the present confession lament their sins, taught to be consoled by God's mercy. In his diocese, St Tikhon was the first to forbid corporal punishment for clergymen, who were then habitual, he also defended his rights to the authorities.
As a real priest, he cared forupbringing of the pastors, therefore two spiritual schools were opened in Yelets and Ostrogozhsk, and in 1765 he converted the Voronezh Slavic spiritual school into a theological seminary and invited teachers from Kiev and Kharkov. For the moral education of the students of the seminary, they again created a special instruction.
Piety and care
Saint Tikhon Zadonsky was dejected by the unfitthe state of the Voronezh monasteries and therefore wrote 15 articles of exhortation to the monks. He also wrote special messages for the people, so that they would be read by the priests before their flock. Thus, the saint struggled against the pagan echoes of the celebration of Yarila and the extravagant drunkenness on the day of Maslenitsa.
Bishop Tikhon always aspired to a solitarymonastic life, but endless diocesan affairs did not give any possibility to fulfill this. He constantly rebelled against immoral amusements, avarice, avarice, luxury, embezzlement and lack of love for his neighbor and almost never rested. Frequent troubles and difficulties knocked down his health, he showed nervous and heart disorders and frequent colds with complications.
Life and privations
Vladyka lived in a very simple and poor environment,he slept on the straw and covered himself with a sheepskin coat. Because of this humility, the servants of churches often laughed at him. But he had a saying: "Forgiveness is always better than revenge." Once, the foolish Kamenev slapped him with the words: "Not a high-minded!", And he took such an unexpected attack with gratitude to God and even began to feed this holy fool daily. In general, he tolerated all resentments and sorrows with joy and thanked God for everything that he sends him.
Prelate Tikhon, Bishop of Voronezh, Zadonskythe Wonderworker was always lenient towards others, but he was very strict towards himself. Once, during Lent, he went into his cell to his friend Skhimmonah Mitrofan, who was sitting at the table with the resident Eletsk Kozmoy Ignatievich, and on the table they had a fish. They were immediately embarrassed, but the saint said that the love of neighbor is higher than fasting and therefore, so that they do not worry, he himself tastes with them. He loved simple people, consoled him and gave all his money and offerings to the poor.
Such is his love and the deeds of self-denialelevated the saint to the contemplation of Heaven and the vision of the future. In 1778 he saw in a thin dream how the Virgin stood on the clouds surrounded by the apostles Peter and Paul, and St. Tikhon himself knelt before her and began to ask for mercy to the world. But the Apostle Paul made such speeches, which immediately made it clear that the world was awaiting hard trials. The saint then woke up in tears.
The following year, again, Saint Tikhon sawThe Virgin with the holy fathers in white robes. And again fell in front of Her on his knees, began to ask for someone of his loved ones, and the Holy Mother of God said that he would be at his request.
Saint Tikhon of Voronezh, the Zadonsky Miracle-Worker, discovered many fateful events for Russia. In particular, he predicted the victory of Russia in the war against Napoleon in 1812.
Towards the end of his life he began to pray that the Lordtold him the time of his death. And there was a voice in the morning dawn: "On a weekday". In the same year he saw a glowing beam, and there were magnificent chambers on it, he wanted to enter the door, but he was told that he could do this only after three years, but he had to work hard. After such a vision, St. Tikhon retired to his cell and rarely received his friends. He was prepared clothes and a coffin, which stood in the closet, Father Tikhon often came to him to cry.
Before his death in a delicate dream, St TikhonZadonsky saw how a familiar priest through the Royal doors of the altar carried a baby, whom the saint kissed on his right cheek, and then he hit him in the left. In the morning St. Tikhon felt himself very ill, his cheek and left leg were numb, his hand began to shake. But he accepted his illness with joy. And then, just before his death, he saw a dream, as a ladder to the skies before him, which he was trying to climb, and he could not do anything because of weakness, then the people began to help, support and put him closer to the clouds. He told his dream to a friend, monk Kozma, and together they realized that the death of the saint was near.
The peaceful end
St. Tikhon retired to rest on December 17, 1767of the year. He was allowed to live where he wished, and so he first settled in the Tolshevsky Preobrazhensky Monastery (40 km from Voronezh). However, there was a swampy terrain, this climate did not go for the health of the saint, then he moved to the Zadonsky monastery and lived there for the rest of his life.
During his infirmities, he constantly communed with the Holy Mysteries, soon he was told from above that he would present himself before the Lord on Sunday, August 13, 1783. At this time he was 59 years old.
In the Zadonsky Christmas-Bogoroditsky monastery, St. Tikhon of Zadonsky found his eternal rest, the relics of his saints are still in the Vladimir Cathedral.
His canonization took place on August 13, 1861 under the reign of Alexander II. At the grave of the saint, miracles began to be performed almost immediately.
It should be noted immediately that the church of St. Tikhon of Zadonsk and Ignatius of the God-Bearer enter the whole church town of the Nativity-Bogoroditsky Monastery in the town of Zadonsk in the Voronezh Region.
According to the stories of the old-timers, Hierodeacon Bogorodichnythe monastery father Viktor in 1943 rented an apartment from one local resident - EV Semenova, who for more than ten years in the attic kept the ancient icon of St. Tikhon of Zadonsk, and she became the only saved icon from the Vladimir Cathedral during the reign of atheistic Soviet power. It is also called the "grave" image of St. Tikhon, she depicts him in full growth and since the time of the glorification of his name stood behind the cancer of the relics of the saint. There she is now.
Prayers and Akathist to St. Tikhon of Zadonsk are particularly read to heal from mental ills - insanity, depression, insanity and alcoholism.
An interesting fact is that the saintTikhon in the work "Demons" of FM Dostoevsky became a prototype of the literary hero - the elder Tikhon - which the writer himself pointed out, and the monastery was the real basis of the artistic space of the novel.
Solemn celebratory services in memory of prelate Tikhon Zadonsky pass on July, 19th and on August, 13th.