Sloboda - what is it? Interpretation, word history
The word "settlement" is not only commonly used. This is a toponym, a surname, and a proper name. Let us examine all its values and definitions.
What is settlement? Meaning of the word
Consider what can be called this word:
- Literally - the village of free residents.
- Factory, industrial settlement, where they do not engage in agriculture.
- The similarity of the rural capital, the center of the parish (district center), the settlement, where there is more than one church, there is bargaining, fair.
- Russian settlements temporarily exempted from the payment of duties in the XII-XVII centuries. (hence the consonance with freedom). Monastic, Yam, archer, foreign, urban craft settlements were mentioned.
- A group of settlements near the fortress city, temporarily exempted from paying taxes, after the abolition of this measure in the first half of the XVIII century. The name "in the old manner" was assigned to the settlement: Yamskaya Sloboda, Inozem Sloboda, etc.
- In the XIX-XX centuries. Industrial settlement "suburban" settlements at large settlements, varieties of posad were called settlement.
- Suburban street townsmen.
Speaking about the concept of “settlement”, what it means, it is important to note that “black” and “white” such settlements differed. The latter were "whitewashed" from paying taxes, in contrast to the "black". However, the Council Code of 1649 abolished the "white" villages.
Sloboda, the definition of which is associated with freedom, has derivatives of the same nature:
- to free, to free - to make free;
- Slobodnoy, Slobodskoy, Slobodskiy - somehow referring to the settlement;
- Slobodchanin, Slobodich, Slobozhanin - residents of the settlement;
- Slobodchik - a free man, not a serf, not assigned to the ground (sometimes so called tax collector);
- sub-little bloke, slobodka - diminutive pet derivatives.
Many people know the concept of "Slobozhanschina":
- the historical region uniting the Russian south-western Black Soil Region and the northeast of Ukraine;
- Euroregion, which includes Belgorod region (RF) and Kharkiv (Ukraine);
- company passenger structure of the Ukrainian railways;
- special squad of the Ukrainian Ministry of Internal Affairs.
What is settlement? Place names, proper names
It is also an East Slavic last name.For example, Alexander Ivanovich Sloboda, Soviet party leader, Vladimir Konstantinovich Sloboda, Soviet designer.
Sloboda - what is it still:
- the name of the EFKO oil and mayonnaise brand;
- football club of the city Uzhitsa (Serbia);
- football club from Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina);
- the name of the Tula newspaper.
Since this word was often called suburban rural settlements, this name joined their own names, eventually turning into a compound that is used today. For example, Sloboda-Kuchinka, Chervonaia (precisely with one "n") Sloboda, Sloboda-Gulevskaya, Sloboda Romanovskaya.
What is a settlement besides this? This is the proper names of the villages. Settlements with this name are especially common in the Vologda, Kaluga, Pskov, Smolensk, Tver, Yaroslavl regions, as well as in some regions of Ukraine.
Concept as a historical term
Although the concept is still alive in toponymy, to the question: "Sloboda - what is it?", Not all modern citizens can give an answer. But it was from these settlements that the streets of the capital took their name: Tverskaya-Yamskaya, Kuznetsky Most, Stoleshnikov Lane, Pottery Embankment, Serebryanichesky Lane, etc.
The most common historical definition of a word would be: a separate settlement of free residents who were engaged in activities similar in nature, had certain benefits. The "blacks" were located on state, urban lands, and the "white" - in the possession of feudal lords or the church. The "white" slobodans did not pay taxes, but were dependent on the owner of the estate, although they were considered free.
All residents of the settlements were in the public service, their activities were led by the relevant order (governing body). According to his name, the name was arising - Streletskaya, Yamskaya, pottery, Pushkarskaya, etc. In the 18th century, when city residents were subject to a head-tax, craftsmen were obliged to register in the workshops, and the suburban self-government was replaced by goverment boards in the city’s districts, in their original settlements meaning ceased to exist.
"Sloboda" - what this concept means in all senses, we have fully told. Although the word is historical, it is still alive in toponyms, surnames, various names.