Quality control systems in construction: basic principles
The scope of construction is characterized by sufficientstrict legislative regulation. There are a large number of norms and standards developed by state bodies and compulsory for use by the developer. However, in the conditions of a market economy, one can only follow them from the point of view of building an effective business model by a construction firm. The company should pay great attention to its own monitoring of the quality of the work performed, in addition to those requirements that are prescribed at the legislative level. What is the specificity of this line of activity of developers? What can be the key criteria for assessing the quality of work in construction?
The essence of quality control systems in construction
Let us study first the specificity of terminology within the framework oftopic in question. Organization of quality control system in construction - activities aimed at ensuring that the activities of the developer and its partners comply with technical, economic and other standards adopted in the legislation or defined at the level of civil legal relations.
Under the quality of construction objectsunderstand the list of their properties, determined on the basis of the intended purpose of erected buildings or structures. In addition, the quality of construction can be assessed based on the provisions of regulatory sources of law, such as GOSTs. Where applicable, foreign standards may also be taken into account.
Classification of building quality levels
It is accepted to single out several levels of quality of construction infrastructure objects. Consider them.
First, this is the normative level.Construction control is carried out on the basis offrom the compliance of the object parameters with the norms of GOSTs, TUs and others that are applied in the segment of economic activity to which the developer's work and its results are related.
Secondly, this is the actual level.It allows you to assess the quality of work inconstruction based on the available measurements on the fact of erection of the building or construction by the developer on a contract basis. Typically, the actual level depends on the extent to which the developer has met the criteria determined by the provisions of regulatory sources.
Thirdly, the so-called operational level of quality of construction objects is singled out.It involves an estimate from the consumer pointview. Its exposure may be largely determined by the conformity of the quality of the construction site with regulatory criteria, but a subjective approach is also possible. As a rule, in the contract between the developer and the customer, only normative indicators are fixed. Therefore, potentially low evaluation of the performance of the first based on the performance characteristics of a building or structure, as a rule, has no legal consequences. But it can, of course, affect the prospects for concluding new contracts between the customer and the developer.
Comprehensive approach as a measure of business performance
In modern companies, quality control systems in construction, as a rule, take into account the criteria at all 3 levels of performance evaluation firm. In what way is this expressed?
First of all, the fact that those divisionscompany-builder, who are responsible for the quality of erected buildings and facilities, set as their goal to ensure maximum compliance of actual performance to both regulatory requirements and customer expectations.
Increased attention is also paid topreliminary study of the terms of the firm's contracts with partners for the desired quality criteria and methods for evaluating the developer's performance. As a rule, both sides are interested in this. Customer - from the point of view of obtaining a construction object that meets all the desired quality criteria. The developer - in terms of strengthening the positive relationship with the partner and the possibility of concluding new contracts with him.
Monitoring of the quality of the developer's performance can be carried out within the framework of such activities as construction supervision. What is its essence?
Technical supervision in construction is carried outcompetent organizations that carry out activities aimed at identifying the compliance of certain stages of the developer's performance of the work with regulatory requirements and other established criteria. In a number of cases, the activity in question can be related to the assessment of not only the quality of the product - at some stage of its production, but also with the determination of the suitability of the materials used in construction, the assessment of the skill level of the employees of the builder. It all depends on what formulations will include the provision on the quality control system in construction - the main intracorporate document, which fixes the criteria for evaluating the results of the developer's work, as well as methods for their analysis.
But, as a rule, the most typical functionssupervisory structures - in determining the compliance of the finished building or in assessing the intermediate results of the developer's work on the basis of regulatory requirements. The activities of the relevant organizations can be sufficiently labor-intensive already at the very beginning of the interaction with the construction firm. Thus, technical supervision can be connected to work on the object already at the design stage. Specialists of relevant institutions can take part in the development of documents related to design estimates, to the drawing up of a schedule of construction works. At the same time, many experts consider this stage to be one of the key, as, as we noted above, the actual level of quality of the developer's work results is largely predetermined by the firm following the standards. Which are largely fixed in design and estimate sources.
Thus, the functioning of the control systemquality begins already at the time of drawing up documents used in construction. The extent to which these sources will be worked out in detail, largely determines the final result of the developer's works.
Normative documents in the assessment of quality in construction
Since the normative aspect in the constructioncontrol is one of the key, it will be useful to study the specifics of the documents in which those standards that are taken for quality assessment are fixed. It is customary to refer to sources of the corresponding type GOSTs, construction norms, design estimates, instructions, industry standards. As a rule, one or another source has a connection with others - at the level of the subject of regulation or interdependent provisions. It is important that the norms that are fixed in the sources adopted at the departmental or branch level do not contradict what is reflected in the federal legal acts.
What is the practical significance of regulatory sources?
Construction control involves the involvement offirstly, due to their obligatory nature, and secondly, the developer can follow them, solving problems of socio-economic nature, taking into account the environmental factor and other criteria that are not directly related to business, but important in terms of positioning builder in the community.
The documents in question help the participants in the construction market solve such problems as:
- ensuring that the results of the work are consistent with the goals that were originally set;
- Stimulation of socially responsible construction in the city, the region, in some cases - at the federal level;
- Creation of a high level of reputation of the builder in the business community, in the sphere of interaction of the firm with government bodies, private individuals;
- assistance to the developer in raising the level of environmental friendliness of the performed works, in technological modernization of the activity;
- stimulating the improvement of quality control systems for construction projects in specific enterprises, in the business environment as a whole.
The objects of rationing in sources of standards and rules
The main objects of rationing in construction documentation are:
- organizational, technological, methodological rules and standards, which are necessary for the work of the developer;
- specific types of buildings and structures erected by construction firms;
- building materials and other types of industrial products used by developers in the process of work;
- socio-economic standards that determinethe cost of construction, the investment attractiveness of the developer's field of activity, the prospects for ensuring employment of citizens at a particular enterprise or in the industry as a whole.
Let's consider in more detail the essence of those sources that are involved in assessing the quality of construction works.
Normative documents in construction control: classification
The documents in question are divided into the following main categories:
- federal sources of law;
- Regional NAP;
- territorial ABA;
- branch and local regulatory sources.
Quality control systems in construction,organized by modern businesses, require a consistent review of all types of these documents - each of them may be important in terms of an effective evaluation of the results of the developer. Let us study the characteristics of each type of source of norms in more detail.
Federal sources of norms
As for federal sources of law,These include, first of all, GOSTs and SNiPs. As for state standards - they fix mandatory or recommended provisions that define the parameters and properties of certain elements of buildings, building materials and designed to ensure a unified approach of real estate market participants to ensure the quality of work performed. SNiPs define mandatory for review by construction firms requirements for work performed during the execution of contracts, as well as key principles that developers should be guided by.
Another type of federal sourcesnorms, the implementation of which requires the organization of a quality control system in construction - codes. Their specificity is that they fix mainly the recommended provisions regarding the compliance of developers with norms and standards.
Relevant sources whose jurisdictionextends to the entire territory of the Russian Federation, there are also guidance documents. They fix both mandatory and recommended norms regulating the application of certain rules and standards.
Implementation of construction control isAlso taking into account the provisions of regional NRAs. The main type of sources of law relating to the category under consideration are territorial norms in the construction sector. They contain provisions that are mandatory for use by firms operating in a specific subject of the Russian Federation. Territorial standards can take into account the peculiarities of the geographical location of construction sites, socio-economic, climatic characteristics of the region, and therefore they are important for the quality control system in construction.
Sectoral and local sources of norms
Branch and local sources - one moremeaningful for the developer of the type of document. These include, in particular, the standards of enterprises and public associations. They set the requirements for specific areas of production: for example, to regulate how the quality control system of electrical installation works in construction should work. Should not conflict with the provisions of federal and regional regulations.
Thus, the building documentation can include both mandatory and recommended rules and norms. Observing it is the most important criterion for building an effective business by a firm.
Quality control systems in construction,organized by developers, usually require a detailed analysis of the provisions of the sectoral and local sources of norms, since they often affect how high will be the assessment of the quality of the company's operation at the operational level, which determines in many ways how much demand the services will be firms in the market.