Properties of matter
If we look around ourselves, we will see thatThe world around us is a collection of the most diverse phenomena, things and objects. All of them are characterized by different properties. Some of them are quite simple, others are quite complicated. Some have microscopic dimensions, and some are huge. In order to understand the essence of these things, objects or phenomena, our sense organs are often enough. And to comprehend the essence of others, only abstract thinking can help us.
However, despite all its diversity, allobjects, things and phenomena of the surrounding world have one common, the most important feature - they all do not depend on the consciousness of people. This is the main property of matter. Thus, we can say that matter is an objective reality.
Basic Properties of Matter
At present, the following levels of organization of matter are distinguished:
- Fields and elementary particles;
- Atoms and molecules;
- Gases, liquids and all macro-bodies;
- Various space objects (nebulae, galaxies, etc.);
- Objects of wildlife (biological level);
- Society or social level.
The properties of matter, regardless of the level to which it belongs, have much in common. These properties include: time, space and motion. It is these properties that ensure the existence of matter.
Matter is infinite and eternal; in time it has always been, is and will be. Thus, we can formulate yet another universal property of matter: any kind of matter is incompatible and indestructible. Matter is not taken from nowhere and does not disappear into anywhere, it simply passes from one state to another. This property of matter has found its full confirmation in laws so well known to all of us as a law on the conservation of mass or energy. In accordance with them, one kind of matter can disappear, but immediately, its other species will appear, and in an exact quantitative ratio.
Another common property of any matter isreflection. The meaning of this concept is that different types of matter interact with each other, which leads to the appearance of their changes. The simplest example of this is the appearance of traces on the snow or frost on the window glass.
Properties of living matter
One of the most complex levels of organization of matter is the biological level. The distinctive properties of living matter from non-living are:
- Possibility of self-reproduction. Any kind of biological matter can be produced more than once, due to the availability of information encoded in DNA molecules;
- Self-regulation of life processes. The process of synthesis and decomposition of substances inside cells is regulated by enzymes, which the cell independently produces;
- Growth. It is carried out by increasing the number and size of cells;
- Organization hierarchy. The unit of the biological being is the cells. In turn, cells form tissues, tissues - organs, and organs - systems of organs;
- Metabolism and energy;
- Food. Getting from the environment of substances and energy, which are necessary to maintain life;
- Irritability. All living beings are able to react to the changing conditions of the internal and external environment, which ensures the stability of their vital activity. In fact, irritability is a manifestation of yet another common property of matter - reflection;
- Homeostasis. All living organisms live in an environment in which there are constant changes. However, within the cells, the intensity of the course of physiological processes and the constancy of the chemical composition are maintained by means of special autoregulatory mechanisms;
- Motion. All living beings have the ability to move. Although it can have different mechanisms and proceed at different rates.
Properties of highly organized matter
To highly organized matter, the headthe human brain. One of its main properties is the ability to reflect the world around us, i.e. consciousness. It is thanks to this property that a person has thoughts and emotions, an ability to think, to know the surrounding reality, to transformational and practical activity.
Another property of highly organized matter is memory. In its essence, it is another manifestation of consciousness.
A special property of organized matter can bename the human psyche. Due to this property, people are endowed with the ability not only to receive information about the surrounding reality, but also to regulate their inner environment, behavioral features on the basis of this. All this allows a person to adapt to living in constantly changing conditions. To put it simply, the properties of highly organized matter allow us to react correctly to all changes in the environment, to develop new additional forms of interaction with what surrounds us. Moreover, these forms of interaction are much more beneficial, flexible and extensive for development and existence than for living organisms, which are limited to the external environment only by physiological relationships.