Phone history: inventors and stages
The story is extremely interesting, because today for them these gadgets are an integral part of life. So, the day of the appearance of the phone can be considered February 14, 1876. On this day, an American scientist of Scottish descent Alexander Graham Bell filed an application to the US Patent Office for his invention. It is interesting that on the same day, but two hours later, another inventor Elisha Gray filed an application for such a device. Subsequently, the latter tried to sue for the rights to this invention, but lost.
The history of the phone and photos will be presented to your attention later.
"Not Bell One" ...
Fifteen years before Bell in 1860, the Italian Antonio Meucci demonstrated to the Americans a device designed for transmitting sound at a distance. However, for unclear reasons, he did not patent it. The documents submitted by him in 1871 were mysteriously lost.
And in 1861, the German scientist Philip Reis also invented a device for transmitting sounds.But the transmission quality in it was so low that the invention was not accepted by the public. But it was he who introduced the term "telephone" from the Greek words "tele" - far and "fono" - sound.
The history of the phone
The device, presented by Bell, was a little like modern phones. He transmitted only the sound of voices and at a very short distance. Only after a while he managed to improve it by applying a new membrane and a carbon microphone "Yuz".
Alexander Bell for the first time presented his invention to the public at a technical exhibition in Philadelphia. So began the history of the development of the phone. Then the device did not have a call, it was the only tube-mouthpiece, designed for receiving and transmitting speech. An astonished public heard from the pipe a monologue of the Prince of Denmark from a Shakespeare play, which the inventor himself read from the next room. The phone was a great success, but the practical benefits were not immediately appreciated. The Bella Telephone Company was founded, which over time turned into a huge, successful group.
Bell had to compete with the American inventor Thomas Edison, who in 1878 refined and improved the existing structure,In particular, he installed an induction coil. This allowed to increase the distance between subscribers. An American Speaking Phone Company was created, which began to produce telephones, ignoring Bell's rights.
Anyway, already in 1877, the first telephone exchange was established in New Hay-Vienna. Over the next 10 years, more than 100,000 telephones were installed. After 25 years, there were more than a million. Over the years, the phones have improved, the quality of communication has improved. In the 20s of the twentieth century, the first automatic telephone exchanges - PBXs were installed. Prior to this, telephonists connected subscribers. And in 1956, the first transatlantic cable was connected, connecting Scotland and Canada. Since then, more than 100 thousand kilometers of transatlantic cables have been laid connecting countries and continents.
The history of the emergence of automotive communications in America
Soon after the creation of the phone in technical and scientific circles, they began to discuss the possibility of creating mobile communication devices. However, experiments and research did not give practical results and this topic was forgotten for some time.At the beginning of the 20th century, broadcasting began to flourish, and scientists once again returned to the ideas of portable communications.
On June 17, 1946, AT & T launched the Mobile Telephone Service Mobile Telephone Communication System. The equipment for it weighed about 40 kg and was mounted in the car. It was a radio transmitter, with the help of which it was possible to make a call to the PBX and contact any stationary telephone subscriber. This line of communication had a limited bandwidth and was very expensive, so it was not a commercial success.
However, further research continued not only in America, but also in England, France and the USSR. This was the beginning of the history of creating a mobile phone.
Mobile (mobile) communications in the Soviet Union
In particular, in 1957, the Soviet radio engineer Leonid Kupriyanovich registered the author's certificate for his own development, which he called the radiophone LK-1. The device had a weight of about three kilograms, it contained: a dial for dialing, four switches and a microphone. The battery provided the radiophone 20-30 hours of work, and the range was 20-30 kilometers.Kupriyanovich's device contacted the city lines through an automatic telephone radio station. And in 1958, the new model of the radiophone weighed, along with the battery, only 500 grams. Despite the obvious progress in the development, radiophones did not receive mass distribution and remained in the experimental stage.
It is worth noting the Altai mobile communications system established in the 1960s with the Soviet Union. In contrast to Kupriyanovich’s amateur projects, the Altai system was ordered and financed by the state. It differed from the American counterpart in that it was fully automatic, and the weight of the equipment was only 13 kg. He was mounted first in the trunk, and later on the dashboard of the car. The Altai system was introduced in more than a hundred cities of the USSR. But mobile subscribers were unable to move more than 60 km from the central station, otherwise the connection was interrupted.
Mobile communication in its present form appeared only with the advent of a fundamentally new communication technology - cellular communication. This idea was voiced back in 1947, but it was only in the 70s that Bell Labs research labs Richard Frenkel, Joel Engel and Amos Joel could practically make it happen.The story of the creation of the phone had a happy continuation, as they developed the layout of the transmitting stations and technologies that allowed moving between the cells without interrupting the connection.
At this time, two large companies seriously engaged in research in the field of mobile communications. This is AT & T and Motorola. The first was more concerned with the improvement and promotion of its own car communication systems, considering the topic of portable communication devices unpromising. Motorola on the contrary, focused on the development of compact communications devices with mobility. The company spent 10 years and more than 100 million dollars on research.
Finally, on April 3, 1973, Martin Kupper, who led the development team, made a historic call from the street to a landline phone. He called Joel Engel from rival company AT & T to boast success. This day is considered by many to be the day the mobile phone history begins. And yet, cellular communications took 10 long years of improvements and bureaucratic red tape before the first of them hit the store shelves. Despite the shortcomings and high prices, they have gained immense popularity, especially in business circles.How did the history of the mobile phone evolve? About this later in our article.
Motorola's first mobile phones
In 1928, businessman Paul Galvin from Chicago registered the company Galvin Manufacturing Corporation, which was engaged in the manufacture of network rectifiers. The company employed only five employees. After a few years, the product range has expanded. The company began producing Motorola car radios. This is how the history of Motorola phones began. Things went, the company constantly produced research and introduced new developments in production. In 1947, the company changed its name to Motorola Inc. Gradually, they become advanced manufacturers of radio and television equipment. Not surprisingly, it was Motorola Inc that developed and released the first valid mobile phone model.
This first model was called DynaTAC 8000X, and it went on sale in 1984. The first mobile phone weighed 794 grams and functioned on one charge for no more than an hour in talk mode. Battery charging took 10 hours. The novelty was a smashing success. The record for his purchase was several months ahead. Phones were quickly improved.Already in 1989, significantly lighter Motorola MicroTAC models went on sale. It was the first flip phone. And in 1996, Motorola StarTAC, the first clamshell phones, saw the light of day. Due to the immense commercial success in the next six years, released many modifications of this model. Gradually, Motorola appeared more serious competitors, advancing on the heels. The latest, truly successful model was the RAZR V3, which went on sale in 2004. The success of her provided an ultra-thin body. But it was becoming increasingly difficult to compete in a growing market, and in 2011 the company broke up into Motorola Solutions and Motorola Mobility. The latter was immediately swallowed up by Google, and in 2014, electronics company Lenovo bought out the company's assets.
Nokia's Finnish success story. Takeoff
How did the history of Nokia phones start? The Finnish company Nokia was incorporated on May 12, 1865 and was a pulp mill. In 1922, a major rubber manufacturer Finnish Rubber Works bought a controlling stake in Nokia, which bought another company that produced electrical cables. It was this acquisition that determined the telecommunications direction for the future operation of enterprises. For a long time, the three companies worked separately, releasing products under a single Nokia brand.The final merger happened only in 1967. In the same year, the corporation created a division that specialized in industrial automation and communication systems. In collaboration with Salora, they are developing high-frequency broadcasting technology and are creating an ARP cellular standard.
The company released its first portable phone, Mobira Talkman, in 1984. He was a little like a mobile phone. Weighed 4.7 kg and consisted of a transmitter with an antenna and a battery, and a tube. But after three years, the next Nokia Cityman model turned out to be much lighter and was already quietly placed in the hand. Gradually, the company switched from the ARP standard to the GSM standard, and in 1992 the first GSM phone, the Nokia 1011, was produced. Two years later, the Finnish company launched a new product, the Nokia 2100, with the Nokia Tune brand call. It is with this model that the company enters the Japanese market, where until then dominated by local manufacturers. In total in the world more than 20 million Nokia 2100 were sold.
By the end of the 90s, Nokia, thanks to the release of successful new products, is becoming the leader in the mobile market. In 1996, the company released the world's first Nokia 9000 Communicator communicator. It has advanced features and a high resolution screen. In 1999, they released the Nokia 7110, which had access to the mobile Internet WAP.
Until this time, mobile phones were quite expensive and high-status, but by the early 2000s, the market began to need more budget and affordable models. Therefore, the Finnish company produces a number of inexpensive phones, such as Nokia 3210 and 3310. These models have become the best-selling phones in the world. For example, the Nokia 3310 has sold more than 120 million copies. This phone had a limited number of functions, but was reliable and convenient.
The fall of the Finnish giant
In the next few years, the company managed to release many more successful models of both budget and premium line. But the emergence of other, more dynamically developing manufacturers, gradually made Nokia products a little competitive. In 2013, the Nokia division, which produces mobile phones, was bought by Microsoft. But already in 2016, the other two companies, Foxconn and HMD Global, which bought out the production capacity and the name "Nokia", announced the revival of the brand.
Samsung Mobile History
The South Korean company Samsung was founded in 1938 by Lee Bin Chol, who began by serving the noodles of his own production. The company grew, expanded and in 1960 began to conquer the electronics market.The company began producing household electronic appliances: televisions, refrigerators, video recorders, etc. With the beginning of the mobile communications era, a new division of Samsung Telecommunications was opened, and 10 years later, in 1988, the SH-100, the first cell phone manufactured in South Korea, saw the light of the day. It was then that the history of Samsung phones began.
In 1993, the SH-700 ultra-light for that time appeared on the market, which weighed only 100 grams. In 1996, the company entered the American market, and a couple of years later sold its phones in South America and Japan.
Samsung has always paid great attention to the design of their models. Therefore, their products are distinguished by their elegance and original appearance. Among the memorable products of the company, we can recall the first purely female clamshell phone A400. He was very light, beautiful and distinguished by a set of women's functions, such as calculating the calories burned or the biological cycle.
The Samsung V200 was equipped with a swivel camera. The revolutionary decision at the time. The company has used such a mechanism for several of its next models. In 2009, one of the first Android I7500 phones appeared.And in 2010 came the Samsung Galaxy S. So began the era of smartphones. Today the company is one of the leaders in sales of smartphones and other mobile communication devices in the world.
The history of the phone "iPhone". Beginning of the era
Everybody is surely interested in the history of creating an iPhone phone, since today it is the trend of the season. Apple Inc., founded on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steven Wozniak and Ronald Wayne, specialized in the production of computer hardware. Gradually, Apple has grown into a huge corporation, a leader in the production of software, electronics and online services.
In 2002, Steve Jobs announced his intention to create a device that combines the functions of a mini-computer, communicator and music player. And in 2007, he presented the first model IPhone. A distinctive feature of the new device was the complete lack of a keyboard and stylus. The phone could only be controlled with the fingers. But there were also disadvantages: lack of access to 3G, inability to record video, etc. But despite this, it sold about 7 million copies.
The developers took into account some shortcomings in the next model, which was released a year later IPhone 3G.The phone gained access to 3G, GPS and the new App Store download center.
Every year, Apple presents a new, more advanced IPhone model, and each time it becomes a landmark and discussed event in the world of mobile technology. The company does not just keep up with the times, but is ahead of it. This is what allowed iPhones to become iconic and highly selling devices.