Phacelia (siderat): properties, photos, reviews. When to sow phacelia as a siderat?
Any gardener who grows various crops on his plot tends to increase their productivity with all possible means. For this, many use fertilizers, choose the best varieties, carry out regular cleaning of weeds and loosening. However, quite often the owners of private plots use the siderata plants (phacelia, rapeseed, oats, etc.). These cultures not only contribute to the enrichment of the soil, but also perform a decorative function. Let us further consider what phacelia represents as a siderat in the garden. Reviews about this culture will also be described in the article.
Siderats are plants that are planted before planting major crops. They contribute to the enrichment of soil nutrients. Siderates provide renewal of humus reserves, increase of fertility of the upper layer of the earth, improve the structure of the soil. These cultures are mostly undemanding, resistant to cold.Siderates reduce the acidity of the soil, accelerate microbiological processes, contribute to the accumulation of useful elements in the upper horizons.
Phacelia as siderat: reviews
The basis of soil fertility is formed by organic compounds (about 1%) and humus (about 4-5%). Most Russian soils, unfortunately, do not even possess such indicators. In order to increase the organic content by at least 1%, it is necessary to deposit 3 buckets of peat per 1m2 of area, 3/4 - of compost or one - of rotted manure. As gardeners themselves point out, the purchase of the required amount of expensive fertilizers today is significantly under the budget. Experienced gardeners successfully apply an inexpensive alternative. According to the dacha residents, phacelia perfectly copes with its tasks and at the same time saves money. Already in the first season, it noticeably transforms the soil. Unpretentiousness of a plant has special value for gardeners. In many areas phacelia as a siderat is planted in early October. Before the onset of frost, the culture manages to gain the necessary mass.
Phacelia siderat and other similar cultures are planted for:
- Fertilizer soil.
- Shading seedlings.
- Qualitative structuring of the layer of earth.
- Cleaning the soil from weeds.
- Protect vegetable and other crops from weeds.
- Restoration of eroded soil.
Phacelia as a siderat in the garden develops quite quickly. As mentioned above, it is undemanding to the soil composition. Phacelia Siderat feels very good in absolutely any conditions. It transforms a heavy soil of a predominantly clay type. Under the influence of culture, the earth becomes breathable and light. This has a beneficial effect on the condition of cultivated vegetables and other plantations. It is widely used phacelia siderat as lawn grass. It attracts bees that pollinate trees and shrubs. Among the main advantages, which gardeners call in their reviews, it should be noted:
- Frost resistance
- Long landing period.
Phacelia siderat: when to sow?
Cultivation is possible throughout the season. It does not matter when the landing will be made - in late autumn or in early spring.The culture is resistant to frosts and does not die even at a temperature of -8 degrees. There are, however, optimal times during which phacelia siderat is planted. When to plant a culture in the middle lane? The optimal period is the time from April 25 to May 5. With a later planting, most of the moisture will go deep, and seedlings may not be friendly. For other regions of the country, a slightly different term is conventionally adopted when sowing phacelia as a siderat. The best is considered the first half of summer.
Seeding is carried out at 1.5-2 cm. Phacelia siderat is mixed with dry sand. The ratio is 1 pack. seeds in a glass of sand. The resulting mixture should be dispersed over the site. After that, it is necessary to fence the ground to cover the seeds of 2-3 cm of soil. Phacelia as a siderat is well developed in sunny areas. However, in shaded places, it will also feel good. On one weave will need about 200 seeds. Planting is carried out in the ordinary continuous way with rows of 30 or 45 cm. Experienced gardeners recommend carefully planting seeds in the soil, since direct light exposure can slow the development of seedlings. Large gaps between the rows do, as a rule, for convenience when dealing with weeds.The honeycomb appearance of the first shoots before the beginning of flowering takes about 40 days. Phacelia siderat blooms, the photo of which is presented in the article, about a month or two.
Do not delay with embedding green mass. It is more expedient to carry out this work during the first week from the beginning of flowering. First of all, grooves should be dug in between the rows. Their depth is approximately 10 cm. After this, it is necessary to prune the plant slightly below the soil and place the greens in the prepared furrows. Organic matter should be slightly sprinkled with compost or garden soil. Some summer residents simply mow phacelia with a sharply sharpened flat-cutter, deepening it at the same time 2-3 cm below the soil surface, and then leave the greens to decompose right in the garden.
In order for the culture to develop well, during the first weeks after planting, it is necessary to loosen the soil and remove weeds. Watering should be carried out on dry days if necessary. Flowering culture begins in a month, a maximum of 1.5 after planting. Phacelia exudes a pleasant scent.
Useful features of culture
Not every culture has the same characteristics as phacelia siderat. The properties of the culture made it very popular among gardeners.Its main useful characteristics include:
- Resistance to the negative effects of pests.
- Fast development. For about one and a half months, phacelia gain about 300 kg / sotka. You can compare this figure with the introduction of the same amount of manure.
- Livable nature Phacelia can be planted in close proximity to vegetable crops. In this case, it will, among other things, provide protection for plantations from the scorching sun and wind.
- Frost resistance. The plant, as mentioned above, does not die during frost. This, in fact, allows the landing in the cold season.
Phacelia grows very quickly in the early stages. This contributes to the closure of the grass stand, due to which, in turn, the development of weeds is suppressed. Due to this, the number of weed beds is minimized. In addition, it allows you to stop the development of fungal or viral diseases. In the process of decomposition in the soil phacelia is an excellent organic fertilizer. It is very quickly and easily absorbed by the earth. Nitrogenous compounds that enter the course of mass decay are present in the most suitable form, in contrast to a chemical substance. The leaves of the plant, in addition, enrich the earth with potassium.The peculiar smell of nectar, which comes from the flowers, attracts predatory insects. They prey on pests (locusts, leaf wrenches, moths, apple tsvetoedov and others). Due to the large amount of green mass, the soil is protected from wind and water erosion. In addition, there is reliable information that phacelia can suppress the development of nematodes in the soil.
To culture brought the maximum effect, you need to recycle the soil well. During the summer, a minimum of 2 crop rotation is required. After phacelia ottsvetet three weeks, it mown. The free area should be dug up, mixing the ground with grass. Then the plant is re-planted. By the autumn with this cycle, the soil is saturated with the necessary amount of oxygen, it becomes fertile and light. To obtain a high yield, tomatoes and cucumbers are planted in the holes between the already growing phacelia. In addition, the culture ensures good development of potatoes. After hilling, the green manure is seeded between the rows.
It should be said that not all conditions may be favorable for those or other plantings.However, with some effort, using the right methods, you can quite easily get high yields. If you do not know some features of the cultivation of "green fertilizer", you can make a number of mistakes, as a result of which all the work will go down the drain. In order not to be disappointed in the method of enriching the land with useful compounds due to the landing of green manure, it is necessary to adhere to the following recommendations:
- Cultures need time to mow. Otherwise, the stems will become coarse, which will significantly slow down their rotting in the soil. Not fully decomposed biomass, in turn, can become a source of fungal and viral diseases.
- To protect vegetable crops from weeds, it is necessary to sow phacelia not in rows, but in bulk.
- Pruning is carried out 2 weeks before the main plantings are planted.
- Plants that belong to the same family as phacelia and other green manures should not be sown. This is due to the fact that common pests can persist in the soil.
- If the planting of the crop is carried out to restore fertility, then the "green fertilizer" should be cut with a flat-cutter or oblique, trying not to damage the root system.
- Winter wheat siderata, which were sown in late autumn, is not recommended to be cut before the onset of frost. It is better to leave them until next spring. In this case, there will be no need to plow the earth, since it will already be quite loose.
Soil improvement technologies with the use of biological fertilizers are becoming increasingly popular today. They are used both at large agricultural enterprises and in private household plots. Technologies include various methods and techniques. The basic principle of the concept of any operation using biological mass is the respect for the soil. The use of vegetable fertilizers in the form of siderats helps to restore the balance of the earth. The introduction of technologies involving the use of biological mass, saves money, eliminates the need to purchase expensive dressings. One of the undoubted advantages of this method is the possibility of growing environmentally friendly products at minimal cost.Using sideratov allows you to create a new humus layer. When farming with the use of traditional methods of tillage, it is destroyed, as a result of which all nutrient compounds necessary for the normal development of vegetable crops and for obtaining high yields are removed from the soil along with the products obtained.Thanks to the natural way, the earth is transformed, quickly restores its structure, fertility increases markedly. The use of natural soil cultivation methods does not require any specific knowledge. Undoubtedly, in any business has its own nuances. However, with the right approach, you can achieve excellent results. It is also important to note that in comparison with chemical fertilizers, green mass does not harm either the land or the crops that are grown on it. Harvest does not contain compounds that may be harmful to humans or animals. This is especially true in modern conditions, when much attention is paid to the ecological purity of products.