Petty bourgeois - what is it?
At one time, Gorky expressed the opinion that philistinism is a distortedly formed sense of property. It is quite possible to agree with this. After all, it is impossible to strive only for one’s own peace, fearing that at some moment it will collapse. Many classics despised philistinism. The definition that Chekhov gave to this phenomenon seems somewhat broader. He wrote that it does not carry any development and progress for people.
In the 19th century, Nikolai Vassilievich Gogol wrote that life was dominated by trifles, and this phenomenon was on a threatening scale. At the same time, Chekhov said that philistinism is a terrible evil. Getting into the essence of this way of life of the youth of that era, the writer contributed to the struggle for his radical change.
Confrontation in literature
In 1903, Chekhov wrote the story "The Bride". The plot of the story is quite simple. Moscow artist Sasha persuades the girl Nadia to flee the house almost from under the crown. The heroine, thanks to this doomed and sick person, saw the whole dull life surrounding her. Nadia, yielding to persuasion, leaves to study.Returning on vacation, the heroine does not regret the act. Sasha, an amazing person, bright inside, helped her escape from the narrow, sultry and selfish middle-class society, find herself, get rid of vulgarity. His words encouraged the heroine for personal growth.
Philistinism: meaning of the word
The term has Polish roots and is derived from the notion of mieszczanin - a city dweller. Until 1917, in Russia the commoners were the lowest category of inhabitants. They carried tax and recruitment duties, corporal punishment extended to them.
Petty bourgeoisness is a class that originates from traders, small homeowners, artisans. Officially, it was enshrined in the Charter of Catherine the Second in 1785. It also clarified the concept. In the Literacy it was stated that burgherism is "the estate of the townsfolk inhabitants", "middle-class people", artisans and small traders. By position, they stood below the merchants. The philistines owned the lion's share of the real estate of the city. Since they, together with the merchants, acted as the main payers of taxes and taxes, they were considered "right urban inhabitants".
Entry into the estate
City burghers united in the "society". Belonging to the estate was made out with a corresponding entry in the city's ordinary book. Thus, each tradesman was attributed to a particular locality. Temporarily leaving the territory of their city burghers were allowed only with a temporary passport. It was allowed to move to another settlement with the permission of the authorities.The title of tradesman passed by inheritance. Any man in the city who owned any real estate, engaged in trade or craft, executed public services and paid taxes, could enroll in the estate. A “society” or a court could exclude a person from philistinism. The petty bourgeois were distributed per capita file, the city's internal fees. They had the right to a corporate association, estate status. The latter was implemented through the administration. In addition, for the burghers was formed a separate court. In the middle of the 19th century, the estate was freed from corporal punishment. In 1866 the burghers ceased to pay the cap. Craftsmen belonging to this estate, passed into the category of shop.All those who are constantly engaged in some business, had to enroll in the shop. According to the titles artisans were divided into apprentices and masters. It was possible to move from the first group to the second only if you were in the rank of apprentice for three years. In the burghers are often transferred and retired military personnel. At the same time, they received certain benefits, including exemption from taxes.
Relationship with merchants
Philistinism - is one of the estates, closely interacting with the merchants. Developed their enterprises, wealthy ordinary people moved into this category. At the same time, impoverished merchants became burghers. In 1863, city reforms were carried out. As a result, the third (lower) merchant guild was abolished. All those who were assigned to her, went into bourgeoisness.
Opportunities of the peasantry
The philistinism accepted and state, and after the abolition of serfdom - all the peasants. However, the conditions must be respected. Peasants could go to bourgeois when leaving the rural community and with the permission of the authorities. After the abolition of serfdom, philistinism was replenished with a significant number of liberated.However, as the records indicate, it was believed that the peasants were passing into a new class solely in order to be exempted from taxes. In fact, they were not engaged in crafts or trade. After purchasing a house in the city and renting a plot, they continued to work on the land. Some tradesmen, having been educated, became raznochintsy.
According to 1811, in Russia there were about 950 thousand burghers. This accounted for 35% of the total population of the city. According to a census taken in 1897, there were about 13,400,000 petty bourgeois in the country. In terms of numbers, this estate was in second place after the peasantry. Despite the fact that, formally, the philistinism had its own self-government, it served to a small extent to the benefit of the philistines. At its core, it acted as a free (for the state) financial and police administration. The philistinism, along with other ranks and estates, was abolished after the 1917 revolution.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the passport system in the country was not strict. However, despite this, the movement of burghers was limited.Cases relating to the issuance of passports, often reached the "gathering". But such meetings were held quite rarely, the law did not determine their composition. In this regard, the decisions taken at the "gatherings" were very unstable.
Liberalism is the ideology of philistinism
In a broad sense, this phenomenon characterizes not only the life of ordinary people, but also their thinking. The problem of petty-bourgeoisness was limited views exclusively personal interests, vulgarity in taste, cowardice. Man’s behavior and worldview consisted in the fact that he looked at the higher strata of society with reverence, and at the lower strata with obvious contempt. The bourgeois by all means tried to approach the elite, but he did not succeed in this. As a result, such people remained the average members of society. The burghers have always tried to arrange life, adapting to the circumstances. Often they did not have a personal opinion, blindly imitated everything that was considered fashionable and prestigious.
Present - what has changed?
Modern philistinism has changed little since pre-revolutionary times. Today there are no estates and ranks, but according to the behavior of people we can rank them in one category or another.Now bourgeoisie can be called those who are limited to stereotypical judgments, live according to a scenario imposed by society, fearing to deviate even slightly from a given trajectory. Such people are characterized by narrow-mindedness, lack of flexibility and breadth of thinking. They live without any convictions or priorities. Such personalities are peculiar concerns only about material welfare. Modern burghers are petty and very mean people. At the same time, this behavior is typical not only for middle-income citizens, but also for those who have millions of income. The world view of a philistine rarely changes, even if he managed to get rich. Such people love gossip. When they meet, first of all they will find out from a person the details of his personal life: are they married (are they married), are there any children, what kind of work, and so on. The main features of the tradesman are the lack of goals and limited views.