Obstructive bronchitis in infants: symptoms and treatment
Immunity of a newborn baby is imperfect and copes with viruses, microbes and other alien microorganisms much more difficult. Inflammatory processes in his body, including in the bronchi, develop rapidly. It is important for parents to see in time the symptoms of a dangerous disease and, if there are deviations in the behavior of the baby, immediately consult a doctor. In our article we will talk about what constitutes obstructive bronchitis in infants. The symptoms and treatment of this disease in children of the first month of life are characterized by a number of features that are recommended for parents of newborns.
What is obstructive bronchitis?
Introduced upper respiratory tract disease among newborns is one of the most common. The severity of obstructive bronchitis is inferior superiority only pneumonia.The main difficulty lies in the fact that the disease is recurrent in nature and in the first year of life can be repeated several times.
So, obstructive bronchitis in infants is an inflammatory process in the bronchi, accompanied by obstruction (blockage, contraction) of their lumen. Both viruses and microbes can act as pathogens of the disease.
Obstructive bronchitis, transferred several times during infancy, often has serious consequences. The most dangerous among them is bronchial asthma.
Causes of the disease in newborns
To give an unequivocal answer to the question of why obstructive bronchitis develops in infants, it will be quite difficult. There are a number of reasons. The most common are the following:
- viral infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract (ARVI, adenovirus infection, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus);
- pathogens identified in the body (streptococci, staphylococci, haemophilus bacilli, chlamydia, and others);
- exposure to mucosal allergens in children prone to allergic reactions.
In addition to the main reasons, concomitant factors can also trigger the disease:
- ingress of foreign objects into the airways of the baby (food crumbs, small parts of toys);
- inhalation of polluted air, gasoline fumes, cigarette smoke;
- the presence of worms in the body;
- genetic predisposition, congenital malformations of the respiratory tract.
Symptoms of obstructive bronchitis in infants
Most often in infants the cause of the disease are viral infections of the upper respiratory tract. In this case, obstructive bronchitis is accompanied by:
- temperature rise to 38-39 °;
- redness of the throat;
- copious mucus from the nose and difficulty breathing.
By well-being, a baby can be either sluggish or, conversely, too capricious.
The characteristic symptoms of obstructive bronchitis in infants are observed on the part of the respiratory organs:
- when you exhale air, a kind of whistle appears;
- patient's breathing is difficult, shortness of breath occurs;
- rales in the lungs are tapped even from a distance, without a stethoscope;
- dry or wet non-productive cough becomes paroxysmal.
The disease in infants is often hampered by the fact that infants cannot clear their throat. As a result, even more mucus accumulates in the lumen of the bronchial tree. One of the symptoms of this condition is cyanosis (blue) of the nasolabial triangle.
Diagnosis of the disease
Based on the above signs of obstructive bronchitis, namely, difficult, weakened breathing, characteristic cough, wheezing in the lungs, the doctor can make the correct diagnosis. You can confirm it by X-ray.
Often the doctor prescribes the delivery of a complete blood count. This allows you to accurately determine the nature and cause of the disease. If obstructive bronchitis is allergic in nature, a complete blood count will show an elevated eosinophil count. In cases of viral or bacterial diseases, an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and an increase in leukocytes are observed in the blood.
As a rule, one of the first symptoms of the disease is a rise in temperature to 38 ° and above. Since the obstruction causes a bronchospasm with impaired sputum,If there are other signs of illness, the doctor can accurately diagnose acute obstructive bronchitis in the infant.
In infants, however, the immune system is immature. It is for this reason that obstructive bronchitis is often observed in infants without fever. In this case, the doctor must make a diagnosis on the presence of other symptoms of the disease. Obstructive bronchitis caused by allergic factors also proceeds without fever. However, when exposed to allergens, the disease develops rapidly, and the condition of the infant requires immediate assistance.
Regardless of the cause of the disease and its nature, parents should immediately seek medical attention to stop coughing and avoid suffocation.
Therapeutic inpatient treatment
Medical assistance to the baby should be provided immediately after the discovery of the first symptoms of the disease. Taking into account the peculiarities of the infant's health, the treatment of obstructive bronchitis in infants (without fever, illness or with its rise is not important) is carried out in the hospital under the supervision of a pulmonologist.Children under the age of 1 year are strongly advised not to treat them on their own so that the disease does not become chronic.
Drug therapy combined with physiotherapeutic procedures is highly effective. Baby appointed:
- inhalation through the nebulizer with drugs that contribute to the expansion of the lumen in the bronchi with spasms ("Berodual", "Ventolin" and others);
- antiviral drugs.
If necessary, a pulmonologist may be prescribed hormone therapy in the form of inhalations through a nebulizer with Pulmicort. Dosage and duration of treatment is determined by a specialist.
Mucolytic and expectorant drugs are prescribed to infants with great care. In most cases, babies cannot cough up normally, which leads to the accumulation of mucus in the bronchi.
Physiotherapeutic procedures also contribute to the acceleration of recovery:
Treatment of the disease at home
If you have only found symptoms of obstructive bronchitis in your baby, you should immediately consult a doctor and wait for a diagnosis.Until that time, the patient should be provided with conditions that could alleviate his condition:
- drinking plenty of water (breast on demand for babies who are breastfed or water for the artificials);
- constant airing of the room to ensure access of fresh air;
- discharge of nasal mucus with an aspirator;
- exclusion from the mother’s food (for babies who are breastfed) of possible allergens.
The above recommendations are mandatory for the treatment of obstructive bronchitis in infants both at home and in the hospital.
How long does obstructive bronchitis last in a newborn?
With timely treatment to the doctor the disease progresses favorably. But one of the main questions that worries parents is how much obstructive bronchitis is treated in infants. It should be noted that usually after 2-3 days of treatment, it is possible to relieve the symptoms of obstruction, while the cough becomes wet and productive. Further complications can occur with the discharge of sputum in infants. In general, the course of therapy usually lasts about three weeks.The baby is discharged from the hospital after his breathing becomes clear and his body temperature returns to normal.
In case of late treatment, obstructive bronchitis becomes chronic and becomes relapsing. If you do not stop the infection in the bronchi, then the inflammatory process penetrates the lungs, resulting in pneumonia.
Massage for obstructive bronchitis in infants
Physiotherapy procedures are a prerequisite for successful treatment of the disease. The most effective for infants is massage. It helps to facilitate the discharge of mucus, improves blood circulation. For infants, massage is an indispensable procedure, since they cannot cough up sputum on their own. In this case, when it is conducted, the following rules should be observed:
- Expectorant drugs must be taken before a massage.
- The procedure is carried out no earlier than 2 hours before bedtime.
- The duration of a massage is 30 minutes. It is recommended to carry out babies procedures 2-3 times a day during the week.
- Massage movements (stroking, rubbing) are performed in the direction of the bottom-up.
Dr. Komarovsky on obstructive bronchitis in an infant
Young mothers listen with pleasure to the simple but effective recommendations of the famous pediatrician. In the case of obstructive bronchitis in infants, Dr. Komarovsky gives parents the following tips for treating the disease:
- Compliance with the drinking regime. To feed the baby should be as often as possible to facilitate the discharge of sputum.
- Providing fresh air access to the respiratory tract. In the absence of temperature, it is recommended to often walk outside, in case of severe frost or adverse weather conditions, to systematically ventilate the room.
- Normalization of temperature and humidity in the room. This is necessary in order to prevent the mucous membranes from drying out in the baby. The air temperature should be maintained at 18-20 °, and humidity - 40-60%.
The above measures should complement the drug treatment prescribed by a specialist. This will avoid complications and speed up the recovery of the child.
Preventive measures for the prevention of disease
Obstructive bronchitis, transferred in infancy, is often recurrent in nature. To prevent the recurrence of the disease, the following preventive measures should be ensured:
- daily walks in the fresh air (preferably near water bodies, by the sea);
- wet cleaning and ventilation of the room - every day;
- no contact with pet hair.
It is important to ensure that the baby has access to fresh air, without tobacco or other smoke, to monitor its food and food that the nursing mother consumes, in order to prevent contact with potential allergens.