Motives of loneliness in the lyrics of Lermontov M.Yu. - features, analysis
Loneliness - the eternal companion of the artist. A sense of emptiness, abandonment, inability to be understood by others were not alien, probably none of the literary classics. But in the lyric poetry of Lermontov, the motives of loneliness took the leading position. A significant role was played by the experiences of the early years. The future hussar, the heir to a vast fortune, separated from his father by a loving, but domineering grandmother, spent time away from peers, with whom he later found it so difficult to find a common language.
Elizaveta Alekseevna Arsenyeva passionately loved her grandson. However, regarding the methods of education had their own judgments, far from pedagogical. She did her best to give him a brilliant education, but she did not care about his son's feelings at all.
Lermontov Sr. did not have the means to allow him to raise Michael the way his aristocratic relatives wanted.Elizaveta Alekseevna pledged to educate the future poet to the age of sixteen and make her the sole heir. One of the conditions of the contract between Arsenyeva and Yury Lermontov was regular meetings with the son. However, she safely forgot about it.
Perhaps the poet felt the unnaturalness of his position, because the motive of loneliness in the lyric poetry of Lermontov appeared quite early. The gloomy solitude was quite a familiar state for him, but the longing pressed on his soul, forcing him to pour out heavy feelings on paper.
In 1839 the poem Mtsyri was written. This is one of the works in which the motive of loneliness is clearly visible. Lyric poetry of Lermontov was formed in solitude, in which the poet arrived from an early age, and with which, it would seem, he had to get used to it. However, in the aforementioned work, he talks about the suffering that brought him the death of his mother and separation from his father. And this suggests that the pain caused to him in childhood was not forgotten in later years.
In the early thirties, motives of loneliness, infidelity and betrayal began to appear in the lyric poetry of Lermontov.What was the reason for this? First, there is a well-known story with Ekaterina Sushkova. Then he meets Natalia Ivanova, to whom she devotes a cycle of poems. Relationships are very rosy, then comes a strange change to the poet. Natalia prefers an experienced rival to the young poet.
Loneliness is the main motive of Lermontov's lyrics. It is present in almost every poem of the poet. He talks about the destructiveness of love, about the variability of this feeling. But as an excuse for failed young poet's lovers, he should quote the words of Vladimir Solovyov, who argued that, falling in love, Lermontov felt a feeling not so much about the object of sighs as about his own love state, immersion in himself, focus on his personality.
Lermontov was embarrassed to demonstrate to others the positive traits of his character. It seemed to him humiliating to appear before them kind and loving. Therefore, he increasingly sought to be merciless in words and deeds. The biographers of the poet talk about his love affairs, which did not always end decently according to the concepts of that time.Lermontov like revenge for treason, with whom he had to face in his youth.
Youth, as is known, is the time of sweet dreams. But these feelings were unfamiliar to Lermontov, as evidenced by his poetic works of the early thirties, for example, “Desire”. In it, the author speaks of useless prayer and vain dreams.
In the University
Pride and freedom were the characteristic qualities of Mikhail Lermontov. In the lyrics of the motive of loneliness, he preferred not only because he was rejected by his beloved and not understood by his comrades. The fact is that the poet was a difficult man. He did not stay at university for two years, leaving his studies after an unpleasant story that happened to one of the professors.
Lermontov discovered an amazing amount of reading, without knowing the lecture material. Once he entered into an argument with a teacher, after which he was recommended to leave the walls of the university.
White sail ...
The nature of Lermontov did not differ flexibility. And this did not contribute to successful learning or career growth. In 1832, the Sail poem was written. When it comes to the motive of loneliness in the lyrics of M. Yu.Lermontov, as a rule, recalls this particular work. It was written in a rather difficult period of the poet's life. He interrupted his studies and, having left Moscow, arrived in St. Petersburg. In the city on the Neva, Lermontov was alone with his thoughts and experiences.
The poet walked along the shores of the Gulf of Finland and in one of these minutes, filled with oppressive feelings, created his imperishable poem. The white sail symbolizes solitude - the motive, in the poetry of M. Yu. Lermontov, passing like a red thread.
As if there is peace in the storms ...
Lermontov, although not entirely independently, but refused to study at the university. Thereby made quite a serious step. He saved himself from unnecessary control, communication with unpleasant people for him, hard framework, unnecessary, in his opinion, obligations. He became free. However, the flip side of freedom is uncertainty, abandonment, loneliness. “Parus” is a verse about a person who left his native land and stays, as you would say today, in limbo.
Despite the fact that in the third quatrain the author describes the natural harmony and silence of the sea, it cannot be said that the poem ends on an optimistic note. Disorder in the soul and inadequacy in life - this is what torments the young poet.He himself, like a sail that asks for storms, strives for change. But there is no peace in them ...
Guards Sub-ensigns School
Changes, and very significant, still happened. In St. Petersburg, Lermontov tried to enter a university, but there he was refused to be counted two years that he spent in a Moscow educational institution. And the young poet, in defiance of his own plans, entered the Guards Sub-ensigns School.
Many researchers believe that in two years of study here Lermontov did not create a single significant work. But it should be said that it was during this period that Junker began work on a work in a different literary genre - he began writing a historical novel about the Pugachev region. But back to the motive of loneliness in the lyric poetry of Lermontov. Summarize this topic will not succeed. And therefore again have to turn to the biography of the poet.
"Death of poet"
Literary scholars have devoted many works to the motives of loneliness that prevail in the works of M. Yu. Lermontov. But if we continue to draw a parallel between the peculiarities of the poet's lyrics and the facts from his biography, it is worth setting out an important episode from his life.
He showed a special incontinence and inability to forgive and understand simple human weaknesses after Pushkin’s death by writing a small poem dedicated to “arrogant descendants”.
After writing the poem "Death of a Poet" Lermontov was imprisoned and sent into exile. In the Caucasus, saw the light of another work - "Prisoner". It is difficult not to notice that the motive of loneliness in the lyric poetry of Lermontov is not at all accidental, even quite natural.
In the works of this Russian poet there are elements inherent in Western European literature. Namely, such a trend as romanticism. Some works of representatives of this literary trend of the poet shifted to their native language.
A romantic is always lonely, he is revolutionary, goes against the established traditions, society and, sometimes, the laws. In 1837, the work “Prayer” was written, in which the lyrical hero calls himself a poor wanderer. That is a romantic who remains in search of the notorious blue flower.
Genius, philosophical detachment, prophetic gift - all this prevented Lermontov from finding something of his own. He was doomed to loneliness from an early age.
Perhaps the cause of Lermontov's early death was precisely disappointment in life. Almost in every second late work there are such words as “grave”, “coffin”, “death”. In the late thirties, Lermontov was already a man devastated, deeply disappointed in life. He is sad and boring, and life for him is “an empty and stupid joke.”
Lermontov lived long before the famous ideas of the Austrian psychoanalyst. However, he fully agreed with the idea that a man comes alone into the world, and leaves him alone. Moreover, the poet and his life spent alone. Perhaps even waiting for death, in which he saw the beginning of something new.