Mortar solution: proportions, composition, calculation
Concrete or cement-sand screed is often used for flooring. Such material after solidification can become an independent coating. This applies to garages, non-residential premises, workshops and warehouses.
But when it comes to living space, then in it a similar base is used as a bearing surface, when in the future it is planned to lay parquet, linoleum or similar materials. Such a coating can and polish, which dedust the surface and makes it aesthetically attractive. By adding decorative ingredients to the composition, you eliminate the need for finishing.
Composition and proportions
If you are planning to shut the floor screed solution, the proportions need to know. For work you will need:
In order to improve the ductility and strength of the mixture, you can add plasticizers. However, at home cost without them.In addition to these components, the solution also includes fillers, it can be:
- expanded clay;
- marble chips;
Concrete solutions for floors in residential premises are almost never used. Therefore, it makes sense to consider cement-sand mixtures. For concrete grade M150, you should prepare 1 part of cement, 3.5 parts of sand and 5.7 parts of crushed stone. These proportions are true for portland cement brand M400.
If you plan to use the composition of the brand M500, the proportions will look like this: 1: 4.5: 6.6. You can use another ratio. The proportions of mortar for floor screed will look different if you plan to make a mixture of the brand M200. For cement grade M400, use 2.8 parts of sand, 1 part of cement and 4.8 parts of rubble. When there is a need to prepare a solution of the brand M400, you can use cement brand M500. In this case, the proportions of cement, sand and rubble will be as follows: 1: 1.6: 3.2.
Before preparing the floor screed solution, the proportions of the material must be carefully studied. It is also important to calculate the amount of the mixture. To do this, follow a certain sequence. To get started is to determine the volume of mortar. It is necessary to measure the floor area.This indicator should be multiplied by the thickness of the layer being built. If the surface area is 30 m2, and the screed will have a thickness in the range of 7 cm, then you will need 2.1 m3the mixture.
Having studied the composition of the mortar for floor screed, you can understand that it provides for the presence of cement and sand. Their number is also necessary to determine before starting work. If you used a proportion with a part of cement and three parts of sand, then you will need about 0.53 m3cement. As for sand, its volume should be one, 57 m.3.
The cubic meter of cement has a mass in the range of 1.3 tons. This suggests that for work should prepare 690 kg of the component. This value is obtained by multiplying the volume of cement and sand. After determining the required number of components and the acquisition of ingredients, you can proceed to the preparation of the solution. It is important to remember that the mixing of liquid and dry components is carried out in different containers.
The composition of the solution: cement
Cement mortar for floor screed, the proportions of which were mentioned above, is closed based on the component of the same name. It gives the quality and strength of the mixture.When choosing this material, you need to pay attention to the brand.
The numbers indicate what load the coating will be able to withstand. If we are talking about the brand M50, then this suggests that the cement is able to undergo a load in the range of 50 kg per unit volume or area. Before selecting components, it is also necessary to determine this indicator.
Preparation of the solution for the warm floor: the varieties of the mixture
The screed solution for underfloor heating, the proportions of which will be mentioned below, is represented by two varieties: semi-dry and wet. The latter is usually cement-sand or concrete. As for semi-dry mixtures, in addition to sand and cement, they contain plasticizers and modifiers. Wet mixes are prepared from cement and sand in a ratio of 1 to 3 or 1 to 4.
The solution is diluted with water, which makes it plastic and makes it easy to level. The mortar for floor screed, the proportions of which should be taken into account when mixing the mixture, should not contain gypsum, if you plan to lay the heating system. This is due to its high hygroscopicity.
Among the disadvantages of wet mixes is a high drying time, which reaches a month. During this period, the solution is gaining strength and dries.The advantages of wet screeds are in the ease of preparation and availability of ingredients.
More about the composition of the solution for warm floor
Mixing ingredients for wet screed is carried out in a concrete mixer. In order to achieve increased durability of the coating, you can add a polymer fiber when mixing. The fibers are introduced into the dry mix with manual mixing. If we are talking about automatic mixing, then this component can be added at any stage.
Cement-sand screed involves the use of cement brand M400 or M500. The sand should have a large fraction (approximately 0.8 mm). This will allow to obtain a coupler with greater resistance to cracking. Water should be added in portions so that the consistency does not turn out to be too liquid.
What brand of solution to use
How to make a floor screed, and what solution is needed, you should ask the experts. As one of the varieties stands concrete grade M100. It is suitable for screed floors. The resulting solution for strength is excellent for coating. However, if it is planned to be laid at lower temperatures, antifreeze additives should be added to the ingredients. This solution is actively used before laying a variety of floor coverings.
Color pigments and plasticizers can be added to the composition. In this case, the material is suitable as a veneer. Choosing the brand of solution for floor screed, you should pay attention to the brand M150 and M200. The first version of the coating has high strength. Among the ingredients are no gypsum, clay and other not so strong binders. This concrete has improved characteristics, therefore relatively expensive.
M200 brand solutions are made on the basis of cement not lower than M400. If you add to the composition of expanding waterproof binders, then after pouring the material will need to endure for 24 hours. After one day, the coating will be able to withstand a hydrostatic pressure of 5 atmospheres. Ready-made cement-sand mixtures of this brand are used for floors made of mosaic, ceramic, granite tiles, clinker bricks, paving stones, cast-iron perforated and concrete slabs.
How to make a solution
If you are faced with the question of how to make a solution for floor screed, then you need to take a closer look at the algorithm of the work. Dry and liquid elements are mixed in different containers.Initially, it is necessary to combine cement, fiber and sand. Stirring is carried out for 5 minutes.
In another container, the plasticizer is combined with water. Then you can start mixing the solution and dry elements. To do this, pour the mixture into a container with liquid and mix well. If water is poured into the dry mixture, lumps form, which will be quite difficult to get rid of. It is hard to knead mechanically. Therefore, it is better to use a drill with a nozzle or a construction mixer. It is much harder to work with a viscous composition, but there will be much less cracks on the surface.
How to make a screed
If you want to pour a cement-sand screed, you need to prepare the base. The surface is treated with a primer, in the next stage beacons are installed. The final step is to fill. Applying a primer allows the base to provide high adhesion to the screed. In addition, it normalizes the structure of the plate. If the base has an increased porosity, then it can be covered with a primer. A denser surface is treated with undiluted composition.
The main task of the screed is creating a flat surface. You can make it with the help of special mortar beacons. They are set in the same plane with a rack level.
To install the beacons, it is necessary to make a gypsum mortar and lay it in small bumps, the height of which is not more than the coating layer. Aluminum profiled corners or wooden slats are laid on the tubercles. With the help of the level they should be set horizontally. Lighthouses will form one plane.
Screed is poured in the next step. It should be done in stripes, which will provide high performance. The solution is poured between beacons, then the surface is aligned with the rule. After the strip dries, you can remove the beacon and start pouring the next batch.
For the device of floors today quite often used concrete or cement-sand screed. Before starting work, it is necessary to determine the brand name of the solution. For example, M200 has a relatively high strength. Its service life reaches several decades. For small rooms, the M150 grade of concrete is perfect.It is cheap, which is its main advantage.