Mongoloid spot: causes
Mongoloid spot in newborns - a skin that has a gray-blue, greenish or black pigmentation. Most often, the dark formation has a rounded or irregular shape. Despite the awesome appearance, the Mongoloid spot, in fact, is not a disease. This is one of the varieties of congenital nevus, which usually passes completely by 4 or 5 years. Nevertheless, in the diagnosis of this formation it is necessary to correctly differentiate it with the possible melano-dangerous manifestation.
Why such a name?
The term "Mongoloid spot" was born because about 90% of children belonging to the Mongoloid race are born with a similar pathology. Such skin pigmentation in newborns is most common in Asia, Indonesia and Japan. It is also found among the indigenous people of Central America, the Eskimos, the Ainu, and the representatives of the Negroid race. Europeans are quite rare: only 1% of babies were diagnosed with this pathology.Due to a certain localization site (usually a Mongoloid patch appears in a newborn on the priest or in the lumbar region), this pigmentation is sometimes called “sacral”.
What it is?
A visual inspection shows that such blackouts represent one or more areas, the color of which differs sharply from the natural skin color. A sacral spot may have a bluish, greenish, blue, gray or even black tint and very much resembles a regular bruise (hematoma).
What causes mongoloid spots in newborns?
The reasons for the occurrence of such anomalies, and what caused a certain area of their localization, are not precisely defined. Scientists associate similar darkening of the skin in infants - representatives of the Mongoloid race - with genetic characteristics, due to which there is a violation in the production of pigment and its movement into different layers of the skin.
The fact that the skin consists of two layers. The surface layer is the epidermis, and the deeper layer is the dermis. In the multilayer epithelium of which the epidermis is composed, the pigment melanin is produced.From the activity of melanocytes - cells that produce melanin, skin color depends. In Caucasians, the production of pigment occurs only under the influence of ultraviolet and appears as a tan. The Mongoloid melanin is produced continuously, regardless of exposure to sunlight. That is why their natural skin color is darker.
In the process of development in the womb of the fetus, migrations of melanocytes from the ectoderm to the surface of the epidermis occur. Modern dermatologists believe that the appearance of the Mongoloid spot in the newborn is due to the incompleteness of this process, therefore, some melanocytes do not have time to move to the upper layers and remain in the deep layers of the dermis. The melanin that they produce is most likely causing frightening darkening.
Causes of congenital nevus
Sacral spot may have a gray-blue, bluish, blue-black, greenish, and sometimes bluish-brown tint. Usually the color of such pigmentation is uniform over the entire surface. The neoplasm may be of the correct oval or rounded shape, however, darkening of irregular shapes is often found. The size of the spot, as well as its appearance, may have different variations.Pigmentation can be no more than a small coin, and maybe more than 10 centimeters in diameter, covering a significant part of the baby’s body, for example, the lower back, buttocks and part of the leg.
Usually Mongoloid spot in infants is located in the region of the sacrum. However, there are cases when the darkening is localized on the skin of the back or lower leg. Sometimes there is migration of the skin defect, when the spot is shifted from the original position (for example, from the buttock to the lumbar region). Most often, babies have a single spot, but there are cases with multiple spots on different parts of the body. It is these defects that persist on the body of a child for quite a long time. At the same time, the probability remains that they will remain forever.
In the first months after the birth of the baby, the shade of the neoplasm can be quite intense. However, over time, its color begins to fade and darkening decreases in size. Usually Mongoloid spots on the pope disappear by 4 or 5 years. Although there are some cases where they lasted longer. Sometimes they pass only in adolescence. It happens that they remain for life.However, this pathology is only possible with multiple browning scattered throughout the body.
Is it dangerous?
Some types of congenital nevi can degenerate into a malignant neoplasm - melody. True, there has not yet been a single case of a Mongoloid spot transformed into a cancer. Therefore, such a pathology, as well as manifestations of papillomatous or verrucous nevus, intradermal pigment nevus and Setton nevus, is considered a melano-non-dangerous nevus and does not pose a threat to life.
However, patients who have certain types of pigment manifestations should be registered with a dermatologist and oncologist. Nevus Ota, borderline and blue nevi are especially threatened. Accurate diagnoses of these pathologies can only be determined by a narrow specialist after carrying out the necessary research.
Diagnosis and prognosis
When detecting any pigment darkening in a baby, it is advisable to immediately contact a dermatologist. Of course, a child born in a maternity hospital should immediately see a specialist.If this does not happen, the doctor must be visited in the first days after discharge. Inspection of a specialist will determine the nature of the pathology and eliminate the likelihood of dangerous diseases. Accurate diagnosis is important. Mongoloid blot in a newborn does not require any treatment, however, there are other dangerous diseases that mask themselves as harmless pigmentation. If necessary, a dermatologist may order specific laboratory tests of the skin in the area of pigmentation.
To confirm the exact diagnosis and determine the nature of the tumor in modern dermatology, conduct such research as:
- Dermatoscopy. Conducting this procedure involves the study of the pigment spot under a powerful microscope.
- Siascopy. This procedure is carried out using spectrophotometric scanning of pigmentation sites. For these purposes they use special modern devices. The procedure itself is absolutely painless and safe, while giving an accurate result even in the early stages of serious diseases.
- Biopsy of the skin of the pigment neoplasm. Histological studies can detect or exclude the presence of dendritic cells, which in the area of the analysis (between elastic and collagen fibers of the skin tissue) should not be.
After differentiation of the pathology and exclusion of congenital melano-dangerous nevi, no treatment is required. Children, on whose body there are sacred spots of bluish-gray shades, are not registered. Pigmentation does not give the baby any inconvenience: it does not hurt or itch. Such a cosmetic defect may disturb loving parents, and some of them, hoping to make the stain less pronounced, begin to apply various ointments, creams and carry out some cosmetic procedures. This should not be done in any case, since it can harm the immature children's body and cause an allergic reaction. Here the main thing - be patient. It will take quite a bit of time, and the spot, most likely, will first fade, and then disappear altogether.