Kazakh SSR and the history of its creation
Modern Kazakhstan is the largestterritory after Russia and one of the most economically developed CIS countries. His immediate predecessor was the Republic of the Soviet Union - the Kazakh SSR. The history of this state formation is simultaneously connected with our common Soviet past and modern realities of Kazakhstan. Let's look at it through the prism of the past years.
But in order to establish what processesled to the emergence of such a state formation as the Kazakh SSR, we need to return a few centuries ago, to the origins of statehood among the Kazakhs.
The origin of Kazakh statehood concernsto the period of the collapse of the Golden Horde and the separation from the Uzbek Khanate based on its ruins of the Kazakh horde. It is customary to date this event in 1465, when the leaders of Kurei and Zhanibek, disgruntled by the rule of the Uzbek Khan Abulkhayr, left their country, headed by their nomads. The tribesmen who followed them began to call themselves Kazakhs, which is translated from the Turkic as "free people".
However, the new state education wasquite unstable, and completely centralized has never been. In 1718, under the pressure of raiding Jungar, it finally broke up into three parts: Junior, Middle and Senior Zhuz. Then the bloody period of the Kazakh-Dzungarian military began. To save the Kazakhs from total extermination was helped only by the gradual adoption during the 18th century by the Kazakh Khans of Russian citizenship. At first the Khanates had considerable autonomy, but during the 19th century it was increasingly abolished, which led to insurrections. In 1824 the khan's power was finally liquidated, and the Kazakh lands became part of the Russian Empire.
The southern part of modern Kazakhstan, beforewhich made the Senior Zhouz, but lost its independence, was annexed to Russia during Central Asian campaigns in the second half of the 19th century. The territory of the resettlement of the Kazakhs was divided between the Turkestan and West Siberian Governor-General, as well as Orenburg Province. During this period they began to be called Kirghiz-Kaisaks, so as not to be confused with the Russian Cossacks.
But in 1917 there was a collapse of the Russian Empire, the Civil War began, which had a significant impact on the fate of the Kazakhs and played a decisive role in the formation of the Kazakh SSR.
The period of confrontation
During the Civil War, the political andarmed struggle was fought in the territory of modern Kazakhstan. At that time national autonomies were formed - in the north - Alash (Alash-Orda) with the center in Semipalatinsk, and in the south - Turkestan with the capital in Kokand. Both state entities were liquidated during the Civil War by the Bolsheviks: the first in 1920, and the second in 1918. The Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic and the Turkestan Soviet Republic, respectively, were formed on their territory.
The Kyrgyz ASSR
At the time of its formation on July 16, 1920the territory of the Kirghiz ASSR included most of modern Kazakhstan. It did not include only the territories in the south of the country, which, as mentioned above, were included in the Turkestan Soviet Republic. But in the Kyrgyz ASSR were Karakalpakia and the modern Orenburg region, and Orenburg was its administrative center. The Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, with the rights of autonomy, was included in the RSFSR, as, indeed, Turkestan.
During its existence, the territory of the KASSRhas undergone significant changes. Thus, in 1924-1925, it included southern territories of modern Kazakhstan, which until then were part of the Turkestan Soviet Republic.
The Kazakh ASSR
Given that the option "Kyrgyz-kaisaki" was notthe self-designation of Kazakhs, in April 1925, the Kyrgyz ASSR was renamed into the Kazakh ASSR. The capital was transferred from Orenburg to Kyzyl-Orda, previously called the Ak-Mosque, and the Orenburg region itself was separated from the territory of the autonomy and transferred to the direct administration of the RSFSR. In 1927 there was another transfer of the capital, this time to Alma-Ata, which remained the administrative center of various state formations of Kazakhs until 1997, that is, 70 years.
In 1930, from the composition of KazASSR was allocatedThe Karakalpak autonomous region, which was transferred to direct subordination of the RSFSR. Thus, the territory of the future Kazakh Soviet Union was formed almost completely, and in the future there were only minor changes.
Education of the Kazakh USSR
In 1936, a newThe Constitution, according to which the Kazakh ASSR acquired the status of a union republic. In this connection, she was withdrawn from the RSFSR, having obtained equal rights with her, and from that time she became known as the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. So there was the formation of the Kazakh SSR.
Management in the Kazakh SSR
In fact, the management of the Kazakh SSR is completelywas concentrated in the hands of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, formed in 1937, which was an integral part of the CPSU. The main person of the republic was the First Secretary of the Party. Although the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Kazakhstan was nominally the collective head of the republic. And the Supreme Council itself was the legislative body. Until 1990, he was presided over by the Chairman of the Presidium, and then by the Chairman of the Supreme Council.
Territorial division of the Kazakh SSR
The Kazakh SSR had an administrative structure,similar to the territorial division of other Soviet republics. In total, 19 regions were formed at different times. In the early 60-ies, some areas of the Kazakh SSR were merged into the provinces (Tselinniy, West Kazakhstan, South Kazakhstan), however, with the preservation of their administrative functions. But already in the mid-sixties it was decided to abandon such a territorial division.
Like any public entity, the Kazakh SSR had its own symbols - flag, emblem and hymn.
The first flag of the republic was reda panel with the inscription "Kazakh SSR" in Russian and Kazakh languages, as well as with a sickle and a hammer in the upper left corner. It was this banner as the state fixed Constitution of the Kazakh SSR in 1937. But in 1953 there were significant changes: the inscription was removed, but a five-pointed star and a blue strip in the lower part of the panel were added. In this form, the flag of the Kazakh SSR existed until the very end of the republic from the Union.
At the same time, in 1937, the coat of arms of the Kazakh SSR was adopted. Unlike the flag for the period of its existence, it underwent minimal changes. Its image is presented below.
The hymn of the Kazakh SSR was approved in 1945. In it, the words of Kayum Mukhamedkhanov, Abdilda Tazhibaev and Gabit Musrepov were put on the music of Mukan Tulebayev, Eugene Brusilovsky and Latif Hamidi.
Development of the national economy
During the years of Soviet power, the Kazakh SSR achievedunprecedented until then economic indicators and the level of development of the national economy. At that time, industry was actively developing, construction of plants and factories was being carried out, virgin land was being raised, a Baikonur cosmodrome was constructed, and the capital of the Kazakh SSR, Alma-Ata, was rebuilt. Particularly intensively developed metallurgy, machine building, coal mining industry.
But do not forget the period of mass hunger, forced collectivization, repression of the national intelligentsia, which the people of Kazakhstan experienced in the 1920s and 1930s.
Elimination of the Kazakh SSR
The democratic processes that began inSoviet Union in the second half of the 1980s, could not help touching the Kazakh SSR, in which the centrifugal tendencies intensified. In 1986, the first anti-government rally was held in the capital of Kazakhstan, Alma-Ata. He was a protest against the appointment of a person from Moscow as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, who had never before been in the republic. The movement was brutally suppressed with the use of military units.
In 1989 Nursultan became the first secretaryNazarbayev, formerly Chairman of the Council of Ministers. On April 24 next year, the Supreme Council elected him president. In October 1990, the Declaration on State Sovereignty of Kazakhstan was adopted. After the August coup, Nazarbayev left the ranks of the CPSU. In December 1991, the full independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan was proclaimed. So the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic ceased to exist.