Interpol - what is it?
Interpol is an organization for dealing with international criminal offenses. Literally translated from the French "international police". It is composed of representatives of states willing to cooperate on international criminal offenses. To date, there are 190 participating countries. More information about the organization later in the article.
Creation history: the first attempt
International Interpol originates in 1914, before the onset of the First World War. It was then that the first International Criminal Police Congress was held. It was attended by 14 countries, including the Russian Empire. The idea was put forward of creating a common coordinating center for criminal cases involving several countries, a joint search for fugitives, etc. However, the project was not destined to bring to a logical end - prevented the First World War.
Second Congress: the creation of an international criminal police
In 1923, the second International Congress took place in Vienna. On it, the idea of 1914 was proposed to be completed through the development of international cooperation.What should Interpol do? Searching for criminals from other countries on your territory, exchanging information, consulting are the main functions of the organization. World War II politicized Interpol. His head was in Austria, after the Anschluss of 1938, in fact in Nazi Germany. Interpol is a police organization, but the Nazis turned it into a political one. It was decided to cease its existence, because Nazi authorities actively began to use access to databases for their purposes, not related to international crime.
Recreation takes place in 1946. Headquarters moved to Paris. Appeared and the modern name. Today Interpol is an international criminal police organization. Later, in 1989, the headquarters was moved to Lyon.
The main directions and objectives
So, what is Interpol doing today? The search for international criminals - the main activity? In fact, the organization has a wide range of areas:
- Single database. All police services of countries of this international organization have access to it. This simplifies the search and identification of international gangsters.
- Creation and support of global police communication around the world. The I-24/7 system allows you to transmit information to each other around the clock, safely and smoothly. This is especially true during complex special operations for implementation and monitoring.
- Operational support. Interpol develops programs that are aimed at improving the joint work on the search and exposure of criminals, drug trafficking, economic crimes.
- International search for criminals, missing persons and so on. This category of cases is the main one; we will discuss this question in more detail below.
- International search for stolen and missing valuables. Vehicles, expensive jewelry, museum exhibits, works of art, etc.
Financing the organizations of the participating countries through annual contributions. This is the standard practice of participation in international organizations.
Search and detention - the main activity of Interpol
Some mistakenly believe that the organization plays the role of a special service. However, it is not. In fact, Interpol is the Ministry of Internal Affairs, only on a global scale. Its main task is to search for people and exchange information. There are three types of tracing:
- Normal.It includes many stages of a police search activity. The collected documents, investigation materials are sent to the National Central Bureau of the country, where, according to the law enforcement agencies, the offender is hiding.
- Urgent. It is organized "without delay". Sometimes there is no time for reconciliation and bureaucracy. Such requests pass the General Secretariat and are sent under the “red circular” stamp immediately to the Bureau of the States where the criminal may have escaped. The request can be sent by phone, email, etc. With the help of an urgent search every year about one thousand international criminals are detained.
- Mixed. Used in cases where the country has no agreement with the other on joint search and extradition of criminals. Although both states are part of the Interpol system, this does not oblige them to cooperate on certain issues. The mixed search is manifested in the fact that for some countries the General Secretariat puts the “red circular” mark and gives instructions to detain and transfer. For others, there is a “green circular”, which means only tracking and transferring information.
Modes of interaction
How does the interaction occur in practice? For example, you need to find a criminal. It became known that he had disappeared into the country, the law enforcement agencies of which also belong to Interpol. The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, for example, makes a request to search for a criminal. A national central bureau has been created for this in each country. It includes law enforcement officers of the state. They contact the headquarters in Lyon with a formal inquiry, and also contact the National Offices of other countries.
It is interesting that even countries that do not have diplomatic ties with each other cooperate within the framework of this international organization.There have been cases when law enforcement agencies of two warring states cooperated through Interpol. There is nothing surprising. The principle of organization is complete removal from politics. Interpol is a system that is designed to protect the rights and freedoms of people, their peaceful existence. It operates on the basis of the Declaration of Human Rights. Regional laws play no role for her. The organization will never cooperate in apprehending individuals whom the international community has found guilty for political reasons. In our legislation, for example, there is no such thing as a “political crime”.However, as they say, there is no clue, but there is a phenomenon. It was not for nothing that the Soviet political nomenclature gave out the catch phrase: "If there was a man, there would always be an article." However, we will not delve into our criminal law. Just to say that if in Russia a person was convicted under a criminal article, this does not mean that Interpol will be looking for him abroad. An organization may recognize such a political case by invoking the International Convention on Human Rights.
Interpol - police in international criminal cases. The terms of reference are limited to strictly specific issues. The organization disseminates information to:
- The capture of criminals ("red circular").
- The search for persons to obtain important information ("blue circular").
- Proactive ad tracing ("green circular").
- Identification of corpses ("black circular"), etc.
The supreme body of Interpol is the General Assembly. It consists of representatives from different countries. Their number is not spelled out anywhere. However, the Charter assumes that each country must necessarily include high-ranking criminal police officials, as well as heads of law enforcement agencies associated with Interpol. She meets annually.It is chaired by an elected president. Voting principle: “one country - one vote”.
Between meetings of the Assembly, current problems are solved by the General Secretariat, headed by the Secretary General.
There is also an advisory body of 13 people - the Executive Committee. He meets three times a year. Elected by the General Assembly. The purpose of the Executive Committee is to monitor the work of the General Secretariat, to check the fulfillment of the tasks set by the highest body of the organization.
In 2016, the leader of the organization changed. Now the president of Interpol is Meng Hongwei. Before his election, he was Deputy Minister of Public Security of China. He replaced the only woman president of the organization, Mireille Balestrasi. The election took place at the 85th session of the General Assembly, held in Indonesia.
Russia in the Interpol system
Our country is also a member of the organization since 1996. For this, the National Central Bureau of Interpol of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation was created. It has regional offices in 78 regions of our country in order to maximize the disclosure of international crimes and the search for international criminals.