Intensive and extensive method of farming
In practice, extensive and intensive methods of farming are known. In this article, more attention will be paid to the first of them.
Briefly about the intensive method
This type of management provides foracceleration of the turnover of production assets, which contributes to an increase in the profitability of economic entities. It also ensures the growth of the effectiveness of the results of social production.
The intensive method is related to technicalrearmament of the national economy. Therefore, it is recognized as sufficiently effective in machine building, where in a relatively short period of time high labor productivity will be achieved, as well as the efficiency of production itself.
Also, an intensive method is often associated withagriculture, where in this case additional investment of financial resources for land reclamation and improvement is envisaged, as well as the use of new combines and other machines.
Agricultural production with developmentcapitalism mainly goes along an intensive path, which involves the vigorous implementation of technological progress. Various achievements in such sciences as biology, biochemistry and genetics, make it possible to raise the fertility of lands by artificial means. The differentiation of land plots in the context of characteristics, for example, economic fertility, has significant differences from natural fertility.
Various industries with intensive developmentways have much in common with each other. However, each of them still has features. The leading role for most industries is the renewal of technology. For example, for agriculture, this is an increase in yields in crop production and productivity in livestock.
Definition of the extensive way of development
Extensive method of farming, with oneparties, contributes to the development of the economy through increased production resources. On the other hand, it creates prerequisites for limiting the opportunities for qualitative improvement of economic processes. From a practical point of view, the extensive method of farming is quite rare in its pure form. Basically it is combined with an intensive way of economic development.
Extensive methods of farmingare inefficient both in the production process itself and in its management. This kind assumes achievement of growth of scale of designing owing to increase in number and number of various design organizations. As mentioned above, the extensive method of farming is ineffective and it is characterized by the presence of certain boundaries, due to some limited material and labor resources. This type may require not only the attraction of an additional number of engineers and technologists of high qualification, but also significant additional costs.
This type of farming can be characterized by such features:
- after the abolition of serfdom, large feudal landholdings were preserved;
- gradual transformation of the landowners' estates into capitalistic estates;
- a long-term combination of economic methods of capitalist and semi-serfdom.
As a clear example of this type,consider Russia. Thus, capitalism in this state developed at a slow enough pace and at the same time it was a heavy burden for the simple peasantry, who bore the burden of survivals of serfdom.
An extensive method of farming is oftenis limited by natural and labor resources available. At the same time, the main emphasis in achieving an increase in production is on expanding the acreage. However, such growth can be achieved through intensive use of previously involved lands. Therefore, sometimes it is necessary to attract additional finance for the same land plot, despite its productivity and previous investments.
Extensive methods of farming in the field ofsocial production are limited. Expanding production volumes from a physical point of view has certain limits, which are due to certain state boundaries, the number of working class, and restrictions on the availability of natural resources.
Modern humanity today can notuse only extensive methods in agriculture. At the same time, the intensive way is based on increasing the fertility of the soil, which is associated with the mandatory use of fertilizers. However, the violation of the technologies for their use, as a result of which there is an adverse impact on the environment, has a multifaceted impact on some components of the biosphere itself. Therefore, social life and the economy must be reoriented from an extensive method to an intensive type of development.
Disadvantages of the extensive method
When evaluating the result of productionand economic activities in terms of using the cost indicators of the enterprise should be oriented towards extensive farming practices.In what kind of society can negativephenomena, time will tell. For example, the drawbacks include the withdrawal from the list of cheap products, the urge to increase the material intensity and labor intensity, which ultimately leads to a restraint in the development of scientific and technological progress. So, the development of virgin lands in the 20 th century (60's) presupposed the existence of an extensive development path in agriculture due to the introduction of new additional lands into circulation, while maintaining the old material and technical base.
Ways of development of various spheres of activity
Extensive methods of farming in those industries in which CAD are used prevail.
Also one of the main directions of developmentThis path is the gas industry. The extensive method of economic management presupposes the development of the continental shelf, deep drilling and the growth of the gas production factor (passing) as an intensive method of economic development.
So, let's sum up what is stated in this articlematerial. It should be noted that the extensive method of farming is unacceptable in the conditions of a deep economic, social and political crisis that is observed all over the world today. And the modern economy because of its indifference to man becomes an essential brake on all social progress.