In what year did Astana become the capital of Kazakhstan? Which city was the capital before?
Modern Kazakhstan is the revived ancient steppes of Akmola, where the fabulous beauty of the city - Astana is located.
In what year did Astana become the capital of Kazakhstan? And for what reasons? The main reason is that the former capital has become problematic in the environmental sphere, as well as in its uncomfortable location - in the very south of the country.
Let us recall a bit about the history of Kazakhstan.
Former capitals of Kazakhstan, XV-XVII century
When did Astana become the capital of Kazakhstan? Before it became it, in the republic there were many historical events.
It is very interesting that in the whole history of Kazakhstan(including the times of the Khanate of Kazakh) there were 9 capitals. True, some of them were capitals only a couple of years. Each represents a certain historical milestone.
The very first - the ancient city of Suzak (1465-1469). After the death of Khan Abulkhair, the capital was moved from the city. Now Suzak is a small village in the Southern region.
The city of Sygnak was also once a major trade and craft center on the famous caravan route. Now around the settlement there is an extensive dry steppe, overgrown with saxaul and prickly bushes.
The next capital of Turkestan (Iasi) is spiritual andthe political center of the Turks. He became the main city of the Kazakh Khanate at the end of the 16th century and was there until the 1630s. This happened when the entire territory of the Middle Syr Darya entered the Kazakh Khanate. Today this city is the center of pilgrimage of Muslims.
Even Tashkent (now the capital of Uzbekistan), conquered in 1586 by Kazakhs, in 1630 (approximately) became the residence of the Kazakh Khanate for almost a hundred years.
Capitals of the XVIII-XX centuries
The history of the city of Semey (now Semipalatinsk)began in 18 18th century. The founding of this city is connected with the name of Tsar Peter I, who issued a decree on the protection of the eastern lands and about the beginning of the construction of the Priirtysh military fortifications. Also, this city was a famous place of exile (XIX - XX century) political minds of the Russian Empire.
The first fortress in Orenburg was laid in 1735 (on the site of the present Orsk) - a fortress near the river Ory. The city was founded in 1743. He as a capital of Kazakhstan did not stay long in the days of the RSFSR.
Since 1925, for two years the capital was Ak-Mosque on the Syr Darya River, then it was renamed Kzyl-Orda (Red Capital).
The former capital of Kazakhstan - Almaty
From 1929 to 1998, the capital of the republic was the cityAlmaty. On the site of the city in the X-XIV centuries was the settlement of Almaty. Subsequently, in 1854, the Russian Cossacks settled here. Large-scale construction began in 1927, when the city received the status of the capital of autonomy. And to this day it remains the largest cultural center of the country.
Huge transport load of highways,a large population (1.5 million people), dense buildings that do not allow further development of the city, not a very favorable ecological situation (one of the most problematic in terms of urban ecology) - all this led to the replacement of the capital in Kazakhstan.
In what year did Astana become the capital of Kazakhstan? History of its development
The boundless spacious steppes of Akmola have long beenwere famous for being a place where different civilizations and cultures intertwined. In connection with certain international, political and economic circumstances, in 1997 the capital of the republic was the city of Akmola (now Astana), located in the heart of the famous Kazakh steppes.
The boundless steppes of these regions of Kazakhstan areand the center of the Eurasian continent. The president of sovereign Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev offered to replace the capital. A special role belongs to extensive free lands in the center of the country for further prosperity and development of the city.
The centuries-old history of the new capital toois diverse. Akmola was founded in what year? Astana became the capital of Kazakhstan by right, because it deserves it. The city with the old name was founded in 1830 as a participant in the Battle of Borodino (Cossack outpost). Later this fortress grew and became a big city.
Astana - a city with the same name (in translation)"White shrine." The word "Akmola" in Kazakh means "White Grave" as well. Such a name was explained by the location of twenty-two kilometers from the town of the same name on which the grave of the local biy is located on top of a limestone hill.
In 1998, Akmola was renamed to Astana. Since then it is the center of public, state and cultural life of the country.
Now the name of the city means "My homeland". In what year did Astana become the capital of Kazakhstan? More recently. But in such a short time the capital of Kazakhstan has turned into a wonderful, beautiful modern city. Its area is more than 200 square meters. km. Astana is becoming more and more modern and attractive every year.