Ilyushin airplanes: the history of victories
The Ilyushin Design Bureau is one of those inexplicable miracles born in the Soviet period of history that we can be proud of. Thanks to talented designers, they managed to make a breakthrough from the devastation left by the civil war, straight to the stars and into the Arctic. Not much aircraft was developed there, but each of them was a small victory for design ideas. Each of them was a major help in the difficult path of the Soviet Union through war and ever-troubled peacetime. The most popular and legendary aircraft of Soviet and world aviation (from the “Flying Tank” to “Matryona”) were developed precisely in it.
With the help of one they won the war, breaking through the enemy defenses by bombing, on the second they flew across the ocean.
This story begins in the Vologda outback with the birth in 1894 of the future designer of the aircraft Ilyushin Sergey Vladimirovich. Diligently comprehending the letter and the score in the parish school, the boy from his childhood worked up during the construction of roads, as an assistant driver, at the factory. He encountered aviation while working at the racetrack as an excavator.Just at the moment when one of the first airfields was created from it. Then Sergey Ilyushin visited the international aviation festival, after which his love for airplanes did not leave his heart. Then Ilyushin enters the imperial army with the beginning of the First World War. There, having served first in the infantry, he seeks transfer to the post of hangar on the airfield. Also in the army, he did the piloting school in 1917.
Red Air Fleet
In 1919, Ilyushin served in the Red Army as a mechanic on a train transporting aircraft for repairs in Serpukhov. He is involved in a unique operation to transport the downed enemy aircraft Avro. This biplane will later become a prototype of the Russian U-1. Having served as the chief of this staff, called an air train, he is sent to the Institute of Engineers of the VKF. He combines his studies with work in a circle of glider pilots, where he created quite real samples that participated in competitions at the international level.
After graduation, he becomes chairman of the group of experts and even makes adjustments to the work of Tupolev and Polikarpov. But he wants to create the most planes.And in 1931 he became the head of the institute, and in 1933 - the design bureau.
He headed the bureau until 1970. During this time, many beautiful aircraft flew out of his nest. Ilyushin's last plane was the Il-62 airliner. The personal contribution of this person to the global aircraft industry can not be overestimated. The design office, his school, continues to work for the benefit of aviation development to this day.
Military aircraft Ilyushin
The development of military aircraft in the Ilyushin design bureau was carried out in two main directions: attack aircraft and long-range bombers.
Of the first, we can distinguish the IL-2 (and its modifications), which has become the most massive military aircraft in history, and the IL-10. All of them were distinguished by high speed and maneuverability for devices of this class. Special valuable qualities of Il'yushin's attack aircraft were powerful armor, serious armament and high payload indices.
Of the bombers worth noting the twin-engine IL-4. The aircraft was actively exploited in the early years of the war. Over five thousand cars were produced. They were also used at sea as torpedo bombers. These aircraft Il'yushin participated in the bombing of Berlin in 1945year
The next unit in this category was the jet IL-28. The beginning of its mass production was in 1949. He was able to carry tactical atomic weapons. This aircraft of Ilyushin was well protected, and it was actively exploited both in the USSR and in other Warsaw Pact countries. In total, these aircraft were released 6100.
Throughout the war, from 1941 to 1945, the IL-2 in various modifications "fought" for victory. These machines participated in all the battles of the Great Patriotic War. For thick armor and guns, piercing the German technology, the plane was called the “flying tank”. It was efficient, reliable and fairly easy to maintain and repair. All this allowed the aircraft to become the most massive machines in the history of military aviation.
More than 30 percent of all Soviet aviation fighting on the Kursk Bulge is precisely these planes. The pilots who rushed at them to the thick of the furnace suffered huge losses for the enemy. The history of air battles with the participation of IL-2 is full of heroic pages and grand victories.
The aircraft was exploited after the war. The machine was in the ranks of the armies of the countries of socialist Europe until 1954.On top of the photo is Illyushin Il-2.
Ilyushin was the first in the Soviet Union to design a passenger aircraft not based on a bomber. They became the IL-18. He began to produce in 1959. The car was so successful and reliable that it can be found in the sky now. Its modification was IL-28. A hundred of these cars were sold abroad. All of them received positive feedback from foreign airlines. Ilyushin passenger planes have long been one of the visiting cards of our country. The next breakthrough was the first jet airliner produced in our country - the IL-62. It was used on medium and long lines, right up to transcontinental flights. This is not the only civilian aircraft KB. There was also IL-12 and others. Also Ilyushin Design Bureau developed cars for transport aviation.
The Ilyushin Design Bureau and TsAGI are the leading enterprises in the Russian aircraft industry. Of the most successful aircraft designed by the students of the great designer, we can mention the IL-76. The huge dual-purpose transport vehicle is being actively exploited. Ilyushin's aircraft continue to solve military and civilian tasks throughout the entire territory of our country and abroad.