How is the skin made?
Producers around the world, in pursuit of profit,have achieved an incredible similarity between artificial and natural skin. In order not to make mistakes when buying, you need to know the differences between these materials. Once it was believed that the coating of genuine leather is warm to the touch and with a rather distinctive flavor. At the moment, these differences do not make sense, because how the skin made of artificial materials can completely imitate the natural. For example, eco-leather is also warm to the touch. And many manufacturers produce synthetic leather with the smell of natural. Usually, on all products of well-known companies there are labels with characteristic symbols. The presence of a label indicates a lot, i.e. that the manufacturer - manufacturer meets the world standards, and you, in no case, will not be disappointed in the acquisition.
Such a label as "rhombus" means that the product fromartificial material. In the case where there are no labels, then this method is used: we need to consider the cut of the skin, such places where the inner surface is not closed. In the event that this is an artificial leather, its base will be visible - a fabric or polyamide.
The way the skin is made of artificial materials -the process is complex. Technologically the manufacture of soft artificial leather is quite diverse, but occurs in three main stages: the preparation of a fibrous substrate, the application of a polymer coating and the final finishing. Usually, for fibrous substrates knitwear, paper and fabrics, various nonwoven materials from synthetic or natural fibers are used. The properties of artificial leather are very determining the basis. It is from the base material will depend on the quality of the skin, such as: the ability to drape, strength, stretch in different directions, etc.
To increase the density and strength of the substrate,the fibers are usually impregnated with polymer compositions. After that, a coating is applied to the surface of such a substrate - from solutions and dispersions of polymers or melts. The technology of polymer processing in dispersions or solutions is especially popular. During the use of the reverse portable method, a special paper backing having embossed embossing is applied, the polymer dispersion or solution is applied sequentially in reverse order, beginning with the outer finishing layer.
Types of bases
From what the basis for artificial skin is used, depends on how the skin is made.
- Polyurethane. For the skin PU base, a cotton cloth is used that is resistant to mechanical stretching and stress. Polyurethane can imitate the natural skin, thanks to a soft and porous polyurethane coating. Advantages of such skin are - frost resistance, strength, and at the same time, polyurethane is able to pass air, which increases its hygroscopicity. The upper polyurethane layer is easy to color, and it is also possible to apply a variety of patterns to it. And this, in turn, increases the possibility of design solutions.
- Polyvinyl chloride. Or PVC. Such a base material for artificial leather is incredibly resistant to environmental influences. It is even used in the manufacture of plastic windows. Such properties are very useful for the production of artificial leather. The way PVC or PVC leather is made differs from a polyurethane base. The basis for PVC leather is not as resistant to colds, but more water resistant. Also PVC based artificial leather guarantees its strength.
- Microfiber. Excellent in the production of microfiber, a synthetic skin substitute, created on the basis of microfibers. The basis for artificial leather from microfiber allows to increase moisture absorption, softness and color fastness, uniform distribution of static electricity. The incredible advantage of microfiber, according to manufacturers, is an excellent opportunity to pass air through the micropores. Such material perfectly allows you to keep the heat, and in the heat is very hygienic. The basis for artificial skin made of microfiber is commonly used in the manufacture of sports shoes.