Founder of Moscow. Who is considered the founder of Moscow?
In the era of sunset of Kievan Rus, when the whole Russian land was bogged down, independent fiefdoms began to form. Each region had its own prince, squad, capital city. The fragmentation of destinies played a fatal role in the rapid conquest of Russia by the Tatar-Mongolian army. Each prince was concerned about his inheritance, hoping that someone else would stop the invaders. At this time, in the dense forests in the center of Russia, a new principality was born. The advantageous position, impenetrable forests around gave him the opportunity to get stronger. Remoteness from borders saved this land from total ruin and destruction. Later, the Moscow principality became the stronghold of the unification of the Russian lands for the expulsion of the Mongol hordes. But this was still far away.
At the beginning of the 12th century, the Moscow principality was first mentioned in the Tale of Bygone Years by the monk Nestor. Let modern historians doubt the authenticity of this document, traditionally this period is considered the beginning of the rule of Moscow princes.Hot bouts of the princely teams of eastern and northern destinies contributed to the weakening of the Kiev state. As the administrative center of Russia, Kiev was becoming obsolete. A new commonality of destinies was born, and the struggle was for supremacy in the new state.
The monument to the founder of Moscow has been located in the city center since 1954. Who is this man who gave life to our capital?
As mentioned above, in a hectic time for Russia, the city of Moscow emerges in the depths of the country. In the spring of 1147, Prince Yury Vladimirovich from Suzdal went on a campaign against Novgorod, captured Torzhok and lands along the Msta River. And Svyatoslav Seversky marched to Smolensk. Yuri Dolgoruky, the founder of Moscow, sent his sons to his squad. It was a sign of great friendship and trust. After the campaign, Yuri called Svyatoslav to come to him "in Moscow". Thus, for the first time in the annals the name of the city appears.
Svyatoslav arrived in Moscow with the allied princes Vladimir Ryazansky and Oleg Svyatoslavovich. Guests gave Prince Yuri a leopard. The founder of Moscow with great honors met the guests, gave a multi-day feast in their honor. At parting, he gave them great and honorable gifts.In the era of contention, such a gesture made Yuri of Suzdal popular and respected among the Russian princes, and his town became famous.
Even then, it was clear how important and advantageous position is this small border point. Moscow initially protected the borders of the Suzdal principality. But in this place the borders of Smolensk, Ryazan, Seversky and Novgorod principalities adjoined, waterways between them passed. So, the prospects for strengthening this fortress were directly connected not only with the growth of the power of the Suzdal principality, but also with the development of the lands of Central Russia. Yuri Dolgoruky, the founder of Moscow, understood this well. The protection from the raids of the steppe inhabitants enabled these lands to grow rich and build up. In the quiet forests of Moscow, the peasants fled from southern and eastern ruined places.
From the father of Vladimir Monomakh, Yuri Dolgoruky, the founder of Moscow, he inherited the land of Zalesia. The vast territory included the city of Rostov and Suzdal in the Volga region, Vladimir on the river Klyazma, Yaroslavl. Monomah himself was a great builder in his principality. And his son continued the policy of his father.The influx of new inhabitants, who inhabited the lands rich in game and fertile lands around Moscow, made it possible to build new cities and villages. Thus arose Pereslavl-Zalessky, Yuryev-Polsky and Dmitrov. Each village began with the construction of the church. Christianity was the spiritual stronghold of Rus. Paganism was exterminated everywhere, monotheism replaced him - faith in Jesus Christ.
City on the Moscow River
The old and newly founded cities played, of course, an important economic and strategic role. But the founder of Moscow decided that he needed a city on the river. This waterway connected Mozhaisk, Smolensk, then along the Dnieper it took out merchant ships to the southern principalities, and along the Dvina there was access to the Baltic Sea. The Moscow River flowed into the Oka within the Ryazan principality. It itself poured numerous streams linking settlements throughout the Moscow Principality. Trade routes from central Russia led to Kiev and Smolensk, Novgorod and Vladimir. Here was a busy transport hub of trade and military roads. Inside the Moscow principality, the rivers Yauza and Protva, Pakhra and Ruza, Lama and Shosh, and Klyazma became the routes of communication.The cities of Volok-Lamsky, Vyshegorod and Lobynsk grew on these waterways. The rivers so thickly entangled the forests that boats and small vessels dragged from the channel into the channel.
A place that should not be empty
It should be noted an important fact, figuring out who the founder of the city. Moscow was not built from scratch. Many archaeological finds speak of this. These places were visited by many princes with their retinues and retinues, lived, stopped on the way to Kiev and Vladimir. Here there were Murom prince Gleb, Boris Rostovsky, Yaroslav the Wise. The father of Yuri Dolgoruky, the Great Vladimir Monomakh, built Orthodox churches in Rostov. In this connection, I visited these places several times. So that they would not be empty, Monomakh ordered his elder warrior boyar Kuchka to establish and build several villages here. They became prototypes of Moscow cities.
Household items of prehistoric pagan Finno-Ugric tribes were also found on the site of the Kremlin. So this land has long been inhabited by people and gave shelter and food to many nations and generations.
The unifying role of Moscow
The favorable geographical position, the emergence of new cities could not pass unnoticed against the background of civil strife and the general ruin of the Russian lands.The first founder of Moscow gained great prestige as a builder of new fortresses and cities, as the initiator of the creation of a defensive alliance of some of them. Therefore, the above meeting of several Allied princes became possible in Moscow. It marked the beginning of a new statehood - the Moscow principality, although the full formation of the city was still far away. Nevertheless, guarantees of cooperation and support were given by the assembled princes to each other.
The founder of Moscow initially built not a city, but a defensive point. Therefore, the first structures were erected on a hill at the confluence of the Moscow River and Neglinka. The fortified walls were facing south and west.
They were lined up from logs that were harvested right there. The first buildings were the temple of John the Baptist under Bor and the Church of the Savior on Bor. The names themselves suggest that there was a dense forest around the new city, from which the space of the house and military buildings was won. The first builders of Moscow were the inhabitants of the villages laid by the boyar Stepan Kuchka.
Prince Yury Dolgoruky, the founder of Moscow, was an energetic statesman.His ambitions as the supreme ruler of Russia are seen at the very beginning of his reign. In 1152 he builds the city of Pereyaslavl-Zalessky to replace Pereyaslavl-Kievsky. There he puts a stone temple. It is surrounded by an earthen wall and wooden towers. In Yuryev and Gorodets the prince also builds stone churches.
He gained the fame of a wise tough ruler and founder of a strong principality. In his lands they seek protection and protection, he is asked for help and support.
Now no one will say for sure how much and in which place there were concrete villages founded by the boyar Kuchka. According to some information, his house was located in the area of modern Chistye Prudy. Kulishki, Kudrino, Sushchevo, Vorobyevo - ancient Kuchkovy villages. Historians are still arguing over who is the founder of Moscow - Yuri Dolgoruky or boyar Kuchka.
The identity of the warrior Stepan Kuchka chronicle narrate mean and controversial. A fact that has the right to exist: before starting construction, Yury Dolgoruky executed the boyar. Either he did not show enough respect for his prince, or he went over to the side of Izyaslav Mstislavovich in retaliation for the adultery of the prince with his wife.The prince took the village of the executed boyar to himself. Subsequently, one of the sons of the boyar Kuchka killed the son of Yuri Dolgoruky, Andrei Bogolyubsky, in a conspiracy. The boyar himself was originally from the southern regions of Russia. Perhaps from Podolia. There was a city of Kucha.
After Prince Yuri
The founder of Moscow did not, as was customary in those days, call the new city by its name. Yuriev-Polsky has already been built. The name of the city gave the river Moscow. There are several interpretations of the name of the river. This may be, for example, the Finnish name for currants or "muddy", "twisted" in local dialects. The names of many rivers ended on “va”. In Finnish, this ending meant “water.”
The founder of Moscow is Yuri Dolgoruky. He played a big role in the history of the Russian state. He laid the foundations of the new statehood, but with his death, Moscow ceased to develop rapidly. And several generations of sons and grandsons of Yuri did not attach due importance to her.
The son of Alexander Nevsky, Daniel, took possession of this land from his father and returned the former glory to the city.