Dystrophy of the retina: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Peripheral dystrophy of the retina
The number of people suffering from once rare diseases increases annually. To date, the chance to be among the patients of the ophthalmology clinic has grown significantly. Even 20 years ago, a group of risk associated with serious eye diseases was recognized by people of retirement age or professionally predisposed. Now young people are at risk. It is important that the disease without qualified treatment can affect the ability to see, leading to complete blindness. These dangerous diseases of the organs of vision include retinal dystrophy.
Retinal dystrophy - what is it?
The retina is a sheath sensitive to light. It is located between the vitreous body and the choroid.Its functional features are the conversion of light signals into electrical impulses that give signals to the brain. By retinal dystrophy, there are many diseases with similar symptoms, most of which are not acquired, but are hereditary. The course of the disease depends on the location and nature of the damage to the retina.
Retinitis pigmentosa is a disorder characterized by gradual, but significant visual impairment. According to statistics, this disease is detected in one baby among three thousand newborns. At about the age of ten, a child may voice complaints about the ability to see at night and peripheral vision. Leads ailment to disorders in color and central vision. It can rarely provoke blindness. Pigmentary dystrophy of the retina can also lead to loss of hearing.
With Stargardt disease, the disease progresses by about six years. Suffering central and light vision. Sometimes forecasting specialists can be disappointing,therefore, it is imperative to recognize symptoms as quickly as possible in order to maintain the quality of life of the child.
Congenital amberosis Leber
This type of disease is quite rare and begins to manifest itself in a child in the first five months after birth. It is statistically established that one child is susceptible to him for eighty thousand born babies. This disease is characterized by a decrease in visual acuity and involuntary eye movement. It is provoked by a mutation at the genetic level in the gene coding system, which affects the quality of vision.
Dystrophy of the retina requires an appropriate, serious attitude to the disease. With this disease, vision loss is not necessary, but treatment should not be started. It is a timely appeal to a specialist that makes it possible to retain the ability to see and fully live.
The reticular membrane is a thin layer of nerve cells. The back of it is photoreceptors that are capable of absorbing light. The information obtained by the photoreceptors paves the path through the optic nerve, entering the central nervous system, where it undergoes additional processing with the help of the visual analyzer.
The reticular membrane has several cellular layers. The outer part is called the pigment layer, it has a close connection with the choroid. In the center of the retina is the optic nerve head, also known as a blind spot. Nearby is the macula. When a retinal lesion is located in this area, a sharp drop in vision occurs (with lesions in the peripheral areas of the retina, only a narrowing of the visual field occurs).
By retinal dystrophy, we understand tissue damage that occurs at the cellular level as a result of impaired metabolism. As a result, metabolic products that have undergone qualitative or quantitative changes appear in the damaged tissue. Dystrophy of the retina has various causes: disturbances in the blood circulation, malfunctions in lymphatic circulation, changes in the hormonal background, infectious infections, intoxication, etc.
One of the most common causes is a malfunction in the cellular blood supply.Most often, such changes appear in the body of the elderly, but in youth they may experience similar problems. There are a number of conditions that provoke the development of retinal dystrophy. These include the period of pregnancy, myopia, smoking, age-related changes, and diabetes. Also the cause may be the consequences of injuries, diseases of the cardiovascular system, kidneys and high blood pressure. Infectious diseases and poisoning, accompanied by intoxication, also threaten changes in the retina.
Types of retinal dystrophy
Distinguish between central and peripheral dystrophy of the retina. Central retinal dystrophy accounts for the area with the most clear vision (area of the macula). As mentioned earlier, the disease triggered by the disease may be age-related changes, which is the most common cause. Indeed, due to age, the blood vessels of the eye undergo changes.
The development of the disease smoothly reduces visual acuity. Blindness, as a rule, does not appear provided that the peripheral regions of the retina are not involved.Recognizing central retinal dystrophy is simple, it is characterized by curvature, dividing and breaking of images.
Central retinal macular dystrophy can be characterized by two forms of the disease: dry and wet. The first is distinguished by the lumpy formations of accumulated metabolic products of the retina and choroid. Slow decrease in sight is characteristic here. The second is distinguished by the fact that it has fluid and blood accumulations in the area of the retina, caused by the germination of newly formed vessels. Visual acuity falls fairly quickly, which is typical in this form of retinal macular dystrophy. Treatment requires qualified and timely, regardless of the form of the disease. Treatment is prescribed based on the results of a diagnosis carried out by a medical institution.
Central chorioretinal dystrophy of the retina occurs in the male half of the population, the age of a man is usually over 20 years. The cause of the disease is the accumulation of effusion of blood vessels under the retina. This interferes with the normal process of nutrition, metabolism, and as a result, dystrophy develops.Exudate provokes gradual retinal detachment, which leads to serious consequences affecting the ability to see. It is not excluded the onset of total blindness. Symptoms of chorioretinal dystrophy are visual impairment and image distortion.
Peripheral retinal dystrophy symptoms may be mild and seem invisible to the patient. Although sometimes there are spots or light flashes. Peripheral dystrophy of the retina is detected by means of an ophthalmoscopy: the eyeball is examined and fluorescent antiography is performed.
The process of diagnosis and subsequent treatment
In order to identify retinal dystrophy, the treatment of which it is absolutely impossible to retract, it is necessary to perform an ophthalmologic examination procedure, involving the process that examines the patient’s fundus, an electrophysiological examination, and an ultrasound examination. All this allows to obtain complete information about the state of the retina and optic nerve. Conducting the necessary laboratory tests will tell you how the metabolic processes take place.
Initially diagnosed dystrophy of the retina, treatment involves using drugs that act to strengthen and dilate the blood vessels. In addition, it is recommended to stimulate the qualitative improvement of metabolism in the body. As a rule, prescribe a complex of vitamins and minerals in combination with drugs aimed at improving the blood supply.
Methods are used that stimulate metabolic processes whose activity has violated retinal dystrophy. Laser treatment is very effective. Therapies use laser coagulation and photodynamic therapy.
The basis of photodynamic treatment is the injection of photosensitizers, which prevent the development of the disease by linking the proteins of vessels with pathology.
Laser therapy is cauterization of pathological vessels. The method prevents the spread of this disease, but under the influence of a laser burns forming a scar. The site, which had exposure to the laser, loses sight.
In the treatment of pigment degeneration, physiotherapeutic methods are usually used: electro- and magneto-stimulation of tissues, but the indicator of the effectiveness of such treatment is not too high.
Sometimes a vasoreconstructive surgery can be used, which has a positive effect on the blood circulation of the retina. Additionally, you can use diet therapy and complex intake of vitamins.
Often dystrophy can be triggered by myopia, then an argon laser can be used to strengthen the retina.
The laser is a versatile tool that opens many possibilities in modern ophthalmology. When it is exposed to a sharp increase in temperature and improves coagulation (coagulation) of the tissue.
The surgical procedure takes place without blood. In its implementation, a special lens with a reflective effect is worn on the patient's eye, which allows the laser to completely penetrate the eye.
Patients with retinal dystrophy are shown to wear sunglasses and eliminate bad habits.
Central retinal dystrophy, which has a wet form, involves intervention to eliminate accumulated fluid.A modern method of treatment suggests the implantation of implants that stop the further development of the disease.
A rather serious defect is retinal dystrophy. Treatment therefore requires skilled and immediate treatment.
Folk remedies in the treatment of retinal dystrophy
As a means of traditional medicine used infusion Sophora Japanese fruit. Infused therapeutic fluid for at least three months. To prepare the infusion requires 0.5 liters of vodka, which is mixed with 5 o g of Japanese Sophora. Apply one teaspoon of infusion to a glass of water, three times a day.
Finding a pathology in the retina, it is necessary to carry out procedures, the purpose of which will be to strengthen it. Otherwise, at the time of stress, there is a risk of detachment. In turn, the detachment requires urgent surgical intervention. It is important that retinal detachment can occur at the wrong time when expert help is unavailable. Therefore, it is much better to avoid such a development.
Retinal detachment is one of the first places to become disabled.Approximately 70% of patients affected by this pathology are people of working age.
In order to slow down the progression of the disease and improve metabolic processes in the retina, ophthalmologists recommend taking multivitamins in combination with vasodilators.
It is known that in order for the retina to function as expected, lutein is needed. The human body itself does not produce it, which indicates the need to fill its lack of food. Lutein is rich in foods that are green: pepper, spinach, etc.
Lutein is an excellent natural antioxidant that has an inhibitory effect on the retinal breakdown process. In addition, it counteracts the creation of free radicals.
Prevention of dystrophy of the retina is an ophthalmologic examination. First of all, it is necessary for people suffering from atherosclerosis, hypertension and diabetes. Also, prophylactic diagnostics is indicated for people who have a genetic predisposition to the disease and myopia.
How independentrecognize alarms
Dystrophy of the retina can be accompanied by very slight deterioration of vision, as well as the appearance of gray spots. When reading, there may be a feeling of falling out of certain letters. In order to diagnose a disease, you can use the test Amsler. It is carried out with the help of a checkered grid, in the middle of which there is a dot of dark color.
To pass the test, you need to close one eye with the palm, and then focus your eyes on the above-mentioned point. The patient should see the open eye cells, which will be even and identical. If not, you should not delay a visit to an ophthalmologist.
A long-delayed ophthalmologic examination with existing ailments, as well as the lack of timely treatment, can adversely affect the quality of later life and make it impossible to restore visual function. Contact a specialist should be as soon as the first signs of the disease of retinal dystrophy become visible. Then the chances of preserving vision will be much higher. Careful and reverent attitude to their health will help to avoid serious problems associated with irreversible processes, for which the body will certainly be grateful.