Diagnosis of VSD: what is it? Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
The vegetative nervous system of people is very complex, and various deviations from its normal functioning are extremely diverse. This makes it possible and the reason for doctors of many fields (cardiologists, psychotherapists, neurologists and others) to set the same diagnosis - the IRR. What it is is easy to decipher. Under the IRR understand vegetovascular dystonia. The problem is that this condition is not considered an independent disease, but is considered only as one of the symptoms of other ailments, of which there are several dozen. Consider how the IRR manifests itself, what causes it, whether such a condition requires treatment.
The formulation of the diagnosis of VSD
Note that in the International Classifier there is no disease "vegetative dystonia". Some experts consider the IRR as a specific manifestation of Da Costa syndrome.This is not entirely true, since the above syndrome is due to post-traumatic stress disorders. Not less often, the diagnosis of the IRR is made by implying somatoform autonomic dysfunction (SVD), which has the code F 45 in ICD-10. or changes in their structure and without pathological processes that could cause such violations. SVD is more associated with subgeneric and mental illnesses, and IRR covers a wider range of diseases. To the question "Diagnosis of the IRR - what is it?" it is more correct to answer that this is a large-scale complex of various functional disorders based on the violation of vascular tone in the brain and / or spinal cord.Such a diagnosis takes place in 80% of cases of patient complaints about functional malfunctions in the work of various organs, including the heart, stomach, intestines, and urogenital system. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) functions autonomously, that is, it does not obey commands and control from other parts of the nervous system.A person cannot make it function as it wants (for example, order the heart to beat faster), but by its actions it can positively or negatively influence its work. It regulates the activity of almost all organs, provides hemostasis and many biochemical processes. To better understand what the diagnosis of VSD means, consider this important system in more detail.
What is the nervous system, it is clear to everyone. Vegetative called it from the Latin word "vegetato", which means "arousal." Anatomically and in function, it is divided into three sections: sympathetic, parasympathetic and metasympathetic.
The activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions controls the cortex of the brain and the hypothalamic centers. These two systems are designed so that they have a central section and peripheral subdivisions. The central division in the form of the bodies of neurons is concentrated in the spinal cord and brain. Nerve fibers and ganglia, located outside the central nervous system and going to all organs, form the periphery of the ANS. That is, the activity of this system extends to almost the entire body and to each of its organs. The only exceptions are skeletal muscle.
The metasympathetic division is the interweaving of nerve fibers and small ganglia in the stomach, heart, bladder.
To understand the interpretation of the diagnosis of the IRR, you need to know how the autonomic nervous system works. As noted above, it controls the condition of almost all organs. In their structure, the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions are similar, but they perform exactly the opposite actions.
- Increases heart rate and strength.
- Artery expands.
- The work of the intestine (production of enzymes, peristalsis) is depressing.
- Salivation blocks.
- The bladder relaxes.
- Pupils expands.
- Ventilation increases.
- Reduces the frequency and strength of heart contractions.
- On the artery acts differently. Coronary and pulmonary narrows, located in the brain and in the genitals expands, does not affect the rest.
- Intestinal stimulates.
- The bladder shrinks.
- Lung ventilation reduces.
- Salivation intensifies.
- Pupils constricts.
So that the human body can exist normally, the work of these two systems must be fully balanced.In addition, the ANS must be able to adapt to the constantly changing external conditions in which the body is located. If the slightest balance failure occurs in the interaction of the divisions of the ANS, organs and entire systems of the human body cease to function correctly, which is the reason for making the diagnosis of the IRR. What this may mean for the patient, consider next.
Diseases and conditions with VSD syndrome
It was noted above that vegetative dystonia affects almost all organs of the human body. Therefore, the list of diseases in which many patients were diagnosed with IRD is quite extensive:
- Dysfunction of the heart and the entire cardiovascular system.
- Mitochondrial diseases (hereditary pathologies in mitochondria, causing diabetes, deafness, Leia syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson syndrome, Leber's neuropathy, ataxia, ptosis, dementia, and others).
- Any hormonal disorders (disovarian disorders, pregnancy, childbirth).
- Focal infections.
- Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine.
- Hereditary dysplasia.
- Diseases of the nervous system.
- Occupational diseases.
External factors provoking the IRR, the following:
- Various infections.
- Head injuries
- The impact of vibration, radiation, microwave.
- Large consumption of coffee.
There is a definite pattern on the basis of which a diagnosis of the IRR is made. What can this mean? The fact is that the symptoms of this syndrome are extremely broad. It includes about 150 different manifestations and symptoms. Therefore, patients with IRD, as a rule, have many complaints of certain somatic disorders.In general, the following manifestations of the syndrome, noted by the majority of patients:
- Asthenia (instability of mood, extreme weakness, impatience, insomnia, nightly awakenings, exhaustion, fatigue, painful perception of many sharp sounds, smells, light, etc.).
- Violations of the heart.
- Shaking hands.
- Respiratory disorders.
- Pain in the joints.
- Dizziness, fainting.
- Nervous disorders of various kinds.
- Orthostatic hypotension.
- Feeling of icy hands and feet.
- Sensation as if burning face.
Responding in detail to the question “Diagnosis of the IRR - what is it in an adult or a child?”, One cannot overlook the clinical syndromes that occur in this condition. Above, we have already mentioned the three divisions of the ANS. The disorder of functions in each of them has its own characteristic features. So, in the sympathetic region it is tachycardia, pallor of the skin, chills, hypertension (pressure can be up to 180/110), numbness of the extremities, temperature (up to 39 ° C), pulse (up to 140 beats per minute), cardialgia.
Parasympathetic disorders have such characteristic signs as bradycardia, sweating, facial flushing, shortness of breath (suffocation), fever throughout the body (without fever), miosis, hypotension, a rare pulse (up to 50 beats per minute), heaviness in the head.
In mixed disorders, there are various symptoms from the above list.
In people diagnosed with VSD, the following syndromes can occur:
- Violations of a mental nature (manifested by tearfulness, phobias, anxiety, irritability, sleep disturbances, hypochondria).
- Adaptation disorders (manifested by fatigue, weakness, meteorological dependence).
- Respiratory (patients complain of lack of air, a feeling of tightness in the chest).
- Neurogastric (manifested by spasms of the esophagus, flatulence, disorders of the chair, heartburn).
- Cardiovascular (patients experience pain in the left side of the chest, complain of instability in blood pressure, tachycardia and arrhythmia).
- Cerebrovascular disorders (this syndrome is manifested by frequent headaches, dizziness, fainting, tinnitus).
- Syndrome of vascular and tissue disorders (characterized by edema, myalgia, angiotrophneurosis).
Based on the above symptoms and manifestations of the IRR, they were divided into several types, which became one of the forms of classification of this condition. It distinguishes three categories of IRR:
- By hypotonic type. Signs of fatigue, low blood pressure, wet palms, pale skin, headaches, muscle weakness.
- By hypertonic type. The diagnosis of VSD is made on the basis of the main symptom - increased blood pressure.Also, patients may complain of headaches, fatigue, weakness and other manifestations of hypertension.
- According to the cardiac type. In this case, patients complain of cardiac disorders, but the ECG does not show noticeable malfunctions in the work of this organ.
- Diagnosis of the IRD on a mixed type is made if the patient has several symptoms of a disorder of various organs, for example, high pressure and tachycardia, arrhythmia, fatigue.
IRR in adults
Note that quite often vegetative dystonia begins at the age of 12-15 years. In older people, it is preserved or manifests for the first time in the following cases:
- Work in a busy schedule (no vacation, no weekend).
- High workload of the day (no time for a full sleep).
- Frequent conflicts with the immediate environment (family, co-workers, neighbors).
- Too emotional.
- Indifference to oneself and others, apathy, closure on one’s person.
- Disorder in life and in life.
The above causes provoke a diagnosis of IRR in adults. What does this mean? Over the years, most people accumulate psychological and physical fatigue,The body is weakened by many diseases; a great burden is created by all sorts of obligations to the family or society. In smokers and drinkers to all other prolonged intoxication is added. All this leads to the fact that many body systems fail. Nervous disorders, cardialgia appear, pressure rushes, sleep problems begin, depression, depression, all kinds of fears (valid and not), uncertainty about tomorrow. Such a state cannot be ignored or attempted to cope with it without the help of specialists.
Diagnosis of IRD in a child, what it may mean
During their growing up, children go through a difficult period of hormonal changes in the body. In everyday life, this is called "transitional age." It was at this time that many symptoms of the IRR most often manifest themselves, especially syndromes of mental disorder, cerebrovascular abnormalities, asthenic syndrome. In adolescents, phobias, all kinds of complexes, sometimes leading to tragic consequences, and depressive states are observed.Some children become completely enclosed in themselves, lose interest in life, others try to cope with the situation, showing extreme aggressiveness or even cruelty towards others.
In addition, in adolescents with a diagnosis of VSD, various somatic disorders are observed. It happens that the IRR is diagnosed in younger children. This leads to:
- High school load (especially if the child additionally attends several circles).
- Frequent and prolonged pastime at the computer (in front of the TV).
- Genetic predisposition to VSD.
- Tendency to depression.
- Irrational mode of the day.
- Infectious diseases.
- Toxic effects.
The IRR manifests itself in children in approximately the same way as in adults. In young patients, anxiety, moodiness, frequent mood changes, sometimes inappropriate behavior, fears, complexes are noted. In addition to nervous disorders, there may be such symptoms as: fatigue, problems with urination, impaired thermoregulation, chills, headaches.
Recall, doctors described more than 150 symptoms, directly or indirectly indicating vegetovascular dystonia.With such an extensive clinic, it is not surprising that it is very often possible to read in the hospital card both in adults and in a child the diagnosis of VVD. What is it - the incompetence of doctors, who determine the same disease in 8 out of 10 patients, or a situation similar to the epidemic? Of course, the epidemic in this case is not in question, since the IRR is impossible to catch. It is also difficult to blame doctors for incompetence, because many specialists consider vegetovascular dystonia only as one of the manifestations of a disease. To make the diagnosis more accurate, patients need to conduct multiple instrumental and laboratory tests, including blood and urine tests, ultrasound, ECG, brain EEG, MRI, and others. It is also necessary to consult a cardiologist, endocrinologist, psychotherapist, gastroenterologist, pediatrician (for children), and a neurologist. The diagnosis of the IRR should be set after excluding from the patient all the diseases that have symptoms similar to vegetovascular dystonia.
Most modern people have such a tight work schedule and high daily workload that they have no time to pay attention to many of the symptoms and syndromes, which were discussed in detail above.Some are embarrassed to go to doctors with problems such as phobia, nervousness, fatigue, insomnia and try to cope with this on their own. This approach almost always worsens the situation and contributes to the development of more serious pathologies. In patients with a diagnosis of AVD, treatment includes a wide range of a variety of activities:
- Etiotropic (eliminate the causes of vegetative dystonia). These include: improving conditions at home, at work, eliminating conflict situations, dedovshchina in the army, employment of the unemployed and others. For each patient developed its own program.
- Pathogenetic (normalizes the interaction of the departments of the ANS and internal organs). These methods include: herbal medicine (taking herbal decoctions, for example, valerian), drug therapy (tranquilizers, suppressing fear, emotional stress), physiotherapy, massage, balneological treatment (showers, various baths).
- Restorative (exercise therapy, healthy eating, bad habits, sanatorium treatment, rest at resorts, swimming pool, sports sections).
Depending on the severity of VSD, doctors may prescribe beta-blockers (Anaprilin, Propranolol), psychostimulants (tinctures of ginseng, lemongrass, Eleutherococcus), neuroleptics (Frenolon, Sonapaks), vitamin complexes.