Crassus Mark Licinius - Ancient Roman commander, winner of Spartacus. Origin, biography
Crassus Mark Licinius became famous as the winner of the rebellious slaves led by Spartacus. But It is worth noting that this was an extraordinary man - a commander, a prudent politician. He was chosen twice by the consul, along with Gneem Pompey the Great and Guy Julius Caesar was part of the first triumvirate. Being a significant and tough politician, irreconcilable to the enemies, he had a rare quality - he enjoyed the love of the common people. According to Plutarch, he had one vice - the thirst for profit, overshadowing his many virtues.
The exact date of birth of Crassus Mark Licinia history has not kept. Presumably he was born in 115 BC. er Based on his name, historians make the assumption that he was the youngest of three brothers.In Rome, there was a tradition enshrined in the senate that the first son was given the name of the father (prenomen), the second was most often given the name Guy or Lucius, the third was called the generic name, in the Krass family, that is Mark.
According to the Roman tradition, proper names were given only to four sons. Subsequent were given the numeral numbers corresponding to the order of birth of Quintus, Sextus, Septimus, Octavius (fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth). Subsequently, they became proper names.
The future commander was born into a family belonging to an ancient and noble tribe of plebeians. Many of his ancestors, in particular, his father Publius Licinius Crassus, consul and censor, played a prominent role in the life of Rome. The family lived according to ancient traditions, according to which all sons, including those who got married, lived with their family members under the roof of their father’s house.
Education Mark Licinius Crassus was traditional for the Roman aristocracy, he was trained for a military career. He spent his youthful years in faraway Spain, where his father was sent by the governor. Here he acquired numerous connections that helped him in the future.
Upon his return to Rome, as the biography of Marcus Licinius Crassus shows, he and his father participated in the Russian war.Success was enjoyed by his speeches in court, which, according to the recall of his friend Cicero, he received thanks to his diligence in oratory. He was considered a successful lawyer. Maybe he would continue this career and achieved significant results, but events have taken a different path.
Flight to Spain
When Rome was threatened by the army of the democrats Guy Maria and Lucius Qinna, his father, along with his middle son, who belonged to the aristocratic party, defended the Senate. After the capture of Rome by supporters of Guy Maria, many aristocrats were killed in the city. The Crass family was also injured, his father and brother were killed.
Marc Licinius Crassus remained to flee, which he did with three friends and several slaves. The place of his shelter was Spain, where he spent eight months hiding in a cave. After the news of the death of Qinna reached him, he stopped hiding and began to assemble a detachment against the Marians, which included 2,500 people.
Marc Licinius Crassus, Pompey the Great, Gaius Julius Caesar - this was the first triumvirate.
Crassus and Sulla
Returning to Italy, Crassus with his people joined the army of Sulla and took part in the civil war of 83-82 BC. erOn the side of Sulla there were a large number of people who suffered from repressions of the Marians or lost relatives, Crassus was one of them. Over time, he began to enjoy the confidence of Sulla, who favored him more and more.
Crassus was very ambitious, but young and inexperienced, so it seemed to him that his efforts were imperceptible. He was jealous of his peer Pompey, because his Sulla himself was called “Great”. His speculative vein and stinginess reduced his authority, which did not go unnoticed. He tried to get the most out of everything.
Greed and greed
Starting a career as a lawyer, Krass Marc Licinius took up any business, regardless of the amount of profit brought. In order to attract more customers, he took the most losing business and, thanks to his scrupulousness and diligence, won them. He bought slaves, taught the craft and sold them profitably. In Rome, every year there were more and more residents. Overcrowding of people led to fires. The firecrafts trained by the slave craft belonged to Mark Licinius Crassus. The fire brigade, organized by him, provided services for a fee.
He did not care how to get wealth.He bought for cheap houses and estates executed, begged the winner for various rewards, continued his speculative transactions and became the richest man in Rome. Crassus was very influential, since a large number of senators were due to him. For all his employment, he could not give up advocacy, since it brought him popularity. Easily lending money, never took interest, but considered defaulting on time a personal offense.
Mark Crassus was allegedly married. His chosen one - the wife of the deceased brother Publius. Her name was Tertullah. According to some historians, she was Caesar's mistress. They raised two sons, the eldest being Publiy, and the younger was Mark, which gives the right to assume that the eldest son was Crassus not native. Perhaps it was the son of an older brother, but there is other information. However, according to Cicero, their family was considered exemplary. Family relationships were warm.
The son of Crassus, Mark Licinius Crassus Divas, was a famous politician and commander, envoy (legate) of Caesar and the governor of Cisalpine Gaul. Information about him is available to 49 BC. erThis gave reason to suggest that he died in the Civil War, 49-50 g. er
Suppression of the gladiators uprising
In Rome, there was a school of gladiators, in which captive warriors studied, most of them were Thracians and Gauls. In 74 BC er The gladiators conspired, in which 78 of them, under the leadership of the Thracian Spartak, managed to escape. Hiding at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, the gladiators managed to escape from the three thousand-strong squad pursuing them, go to the rear and smash it, seizing a large number of weapons and a lot of supplies.
Spartak was joined by runaway slaves and gladiators, as well as ordinary people who were dissatisfied with the rule of the aristocrats. Spartacus squad became powerful and mobile, successfully fought with the Roman soldiers. This can be explained by the fact that regular combat armies fought on the borders of the empire and they were not in Rome. The situation was becoming dangerous, and it was unreasonable to wait for the army under the command of Gn. Pompey, who was called to Rome. Therefore, Mark Licinius Crassus volunteered to speak out against Spartak.
The warriors of the two legions handed over to Crassus were afraid of meeting Spartak, but Crassus was determined,as he was a slave owner and perceived Spartacus as a personal enemy. He quickly restored order, executing every tenth, that is, he made a decimation. Crassus was afraid of his warriors more than meeting with the enemy. Crassus did his best to end the insurgents faster, as Pompey’s army approached, and he feared that the victory and the glory of the great commander would again be his rival.
The last battle took place at the river Silar, in which Crassus won the victory. Spartacus was killed, six thousand slaves taken prisoner, the rest of the rebellious army spread throughout Italy. All prisoners by order of the proconsul were crucified on the sides of the Appian Way.
According to Plutarch, all men in the genus Crassus did not live to be 60 years old. Mark Licinius Crassus was no exception, he died in 55 BC, during the Parthian War. As Plutarch said, the head and the right hand of Crassus were brought to the Parthian prince Pacorus. The commander was exactly 60 years old.