Civil War: a definition of history
Many are familiar with the term "civil war"The definition of these events is capable not only of historians, but also of eyewitnesses. Such bloody events carry ruin and chaos. In this case, hundreds and thousands of residents of a certain locality suffer.
Participants in a collision
Civil war is the definition of an internal armed conflict, in which:
- Two or more groups, rallied around some specific ideas;
- a nation representing a multinational country.
Most often, each of the belligerents strives toone case to influence the policy of the ruling circles, in another - to change the central or regional power. In the latter case, the region usually separates.
As experience shows, the civil war in Russia(a definition that every historian can give) refers to one of the most violent types of armed clashes. There is not only terror in relation to the representatives of the opposing sides, but the worst is the victims among civilians.
Factors provoking civil war
World Bank specialists in the first yearsThe millennium was the so-called Collier-Hoeffler model. The subject of the research was historical intervals of five years during 1960-1999. with civil wars. They were opposed to the same periods, but without any sort of conflict. The purpose of the statistics was to establish a logical relationship between various factors provoking a civil war:
- It requires sufficient financial resources. Often the source of their revenues is other states.
- The ranks of militants are mainly replenished at the expense of poorly educated young people. The Civil War definition in this case is special. Much depends on the number of participants.
- The supremacy of one nation over others increases the risk. When different ethnic groups can not find a common language, besides there is a religious factor, a civil war is unlikely.
- Direct dependence on the terrain and hard-to-reach areas - in mountainous or deserted areas, a greater likelihood of civil war.
Signs of the Civil War
Any civil war is (by the textbook of history: a large-scale armed confrontation between organized groups within the state) a number of signs:
- Each of the parties involved in the conflict is characterized by elements of the military-political type of government;
- The military conflicts that have begun are dragged on for years;
- almost all segments of the population and different nationalities of the country take part.
Sometimes on the territory embraced by a flamecivil war, taking advantage of the situation, other states are introducing their troops. In the rear of the enemy, partisan detachments are being formed. The fact that the state is often represented as one of the belligerents is not at all an obligatory criterion, as Anne Hironaka argues. It is very difficult to catch the moment when hooligan actions of citizens grow into a real civil war.
What Historians Say
Opinions of political scientists on the definitionthe concept of "civil war" divided. If we start from how many people die during such conflicts, in some cases their number exceeds a thousand, in others - the losses can reach hundreds of fighters of each of the belligerents.
From 1816 to 1997, 213 facts were recordedoutbreaks of civil wars, during which only one year a thousand people died. Almost half of them are in 1944-1997. Since the end of the Second World War until 2007, in different parts of the world there have been 90 different kinds of putsches. Civil war (definition of history) is an acute configuration of the public's social struggle within the state.
Criteria for armed conflicts
Despite such sad statistics, nowhere in theThe Geneva Conventions do not come across an explanation of what "civil war" means. Instead, they offer criteria characterizing an armed conflict that does not have an international connotation. There are only four:
- Borders of controlled territories, i.e. The parties seized by the opposing sides change from time to time.
- In fact, a full-fledged civil authority must be extended to a certain part of the country.
- Anti-government groups are partially recognized as belligerents.
- Government troops are forced to fight with insurgents, which are well organized.
A lot of pain brings any civil war. The definition of the term people give their own, pointing to the inaction of power.
The most famous civil wars from the time of Sparta until 1867
The history of civil wars, as they say, goes to gray antiquity:
- As an example, we can cite everything knownan uprising of slaves, a class of humiliated and insulted, led by the gladiator of Spartacus between the 71st and 73rd years of our era. This was a large-scale civil war. The definition in those days of such events was not even given.
- After the death of the English monarch Henry, almost nine years, since 1135, the struggle in the Anglo-Norman state of various groups for the liberated throne continued.
- On the North American continent in 1861-1865, between the northern and southern states, a civil war broke out, putting an end to the shameful slave system.
- 1863-1867 years in Japan raised the uprising of Christian samurai and peasants who could no longer tolerate a difficult economic situation, as well as oppression on religious grounds.
October Revolution and other battles
The Civil War of 1918-1922., which raged in the vastness of the vast Russian Empire after the October Revolution of 1917, forever imprinted in history. Moreover, the new workers 'and peasants' government had to fight not only with the White Guards, but also with the intrusive interventionists - the Entente troops and the imperial Japan in the Far East. Civil war - is (definition briefly: the battles between classes) chaos throughout the insurgent territory.
In 1936-1939 there were fierce fightingactions between the Spanish Republicans and the supporters of General Franco. The first of these was unofficially assisted by the Soviet Union, while the second was supported by Hitlerite Germany.
It is not difficult to see that all the described civil wars of the last two centuries lasted 3-4 years.
The Civil War in Russia
Separately, attention should be paid to civilwar, which began in 1918 shortly after the overthrow of the Provisional Government in Russia. The events of the period 1917-1922 radically not only radically changed the face of the multinational state, but also in the future influenced the course of world history.
The February Revolution of 1917 was not able to resolveaccumulated problems and contradictions in the political and social spheres, as well as national and ethical issues. In the bloody battle, two ideologically divided movements came together: the defenders of the young Soviet country-the Red Army (or the "Reds") and the supporters of the old regime-whiteguards (or "whites").
Bolsheviks managed to retain power thanks to theircohesion around party leaders and organization. But victory over the enemy would be impossible without the support of the communist idea by the masses of the people. A powerful wave of enthusiasm between the working class and the peasantry facilitated the accelerated development of all branches of the national economy. Stalin got the economy in ruins. In fact, he started from scratch. But under his leadership, the country of the proletariat that emerged on the geographical map was transformed beyond recognition.
I had to go through repressions and hunger strikes in 1932-1933years, sacrificing millions of citizens, for the sake of a better life for future generations. But this, as they say, is a completely different story, which requires careful study to someday arrange all the points. In any case, a civil war raises panic.