Beekeeping for beginners: where to start? Basic Tips
Not everyone is able to breed bees. This is due to the characteristics of the human body, character traits. It is not enough just to love nature - you need to have patience, a desire to care for and care for bee colonies, to be prepared for the bites of these insects. In the presence of a predisposition to allergic manifestations, one should not even consider such an interesting activity as beekeeping for beginners.
How to start to realize yourself as a beekeeper? What actions will trigger the start for a new occupation? It is important to understand that beekeeping is a whole science that requires certain knowledge, skills and daily work.
Start of beekeeping for beginners nature lovers
The first thing that a beginner beekeeper needs to do is to determine the place where bees are to be bred. The choice of the place of residence of bee colonies should be carefully considered, and the area occupied by the hives should be fenced.The presence of a high (about 2 meters) fence capable of protecting the bee houses from gusting winds is welcomed.
The right choice of the location of the apiary, the presence of highly productive bee colonies, a high-quality product at the exit - these components allow us to consider beekeeping as a business. How to start an inexperienced beekeeper who wants to get not only delicious honey, but also a good income from the sale of beekeeping products?
Area and Mobility
The apiary should be located away from industrial facilities and roads, in a natural area with numerous and varied honey plants. In the absence of the possibility of such placement, it will be necessary to export the insects to the melliferous places, which will entail transportation costs.
The area of the apiary depends on the number of families. To accommodate 15 of these communities will need a plot of 3x5 meters. Hives must be placed at a distance of not less than a meter from each other. You can install them tightly along the fence or in special pavilions. Many beekeepers have hives staggered for easy access and easier work.
Some tips on the location of houses
Novice beekeepers need to study a lot of literature, get advice from experienced specialists, put them into practice, taking into account the peculiarities of climate and terrain. The accumulated knowledge will allow to ensure the proper management of the bee farm, to avoid further unnecessary expenses and losses. How to start beekeeping from scratch?
- Houses for bees should be placed in a dry, protected place on the sunny side of the site. Dampness should not be. This can lead to loss of families and deterioration of the final products: honey quickly absorbs moisture and loses its taste and valuable qualities.
- Hives should be located facing south or southeast. Face or tray - it means a hole for departure.
- Bees do not perceive all colors, so it is better to paint their houses in light colors: white, blue, beige, yellow.
- Do not often move the hives, especially over considerable distances, and change their places. Bees are not well oriented in space and can be lost.
- It is possible to incline the beehives only slightly, otherwise this situation may lead to the curvature of the honeycombs. The slope is only necessary when there is a danger of raindrops leaking.
- If possible, the apiary is better to organize away from television antennas and electrical wires.
- In the drinkers for the bees, you can put pieces of foam or thin plates that can stick to the surface. This will make the water more accessible to insects, they will be able to sit on the "rafts" and drink.
- To avoid the invasion of ants, you must install the hives on stands at a height of at least 30 cm from the soil surface, and lubricate them with engine oil or grease.
- It should protect the houses from the scorching sun.
Beekeeping beginners beginners connoisseurs of bees is the correct choice of working form, which should consist of gloves, a light-colored robe or overalls, as well as a hat with a mesh on the face.The choice of color and quality of clothes is very important: the bees are irritated by dark shades and the fleecy surface of the fabric.
A professional "robe" must meet all the requirements of sanitary standards, not have specific odors and reliably protect the body from possible bites. An important role is played by the high strength of the material and its smooth structure.
Choice of hives
Bee houses should be comfortable for the inhabitants, warm, well ventilated, have a place for feeding and drinking.Beehives can be bought, and you can make it yourself, given the particular climate in the proposed area. Novice beekeeping should be initially organized correctly, so you should pay attention to every little thing.
In working with bees, the beekeeper will not be able to do without certain devices: hand tools, tools for taking care of families and beehives, special containers and devices, which, in particular, include a smoker. The smell of smoke calms the bees, they do not like him and fly away for a while.
To care for bee colonies, you must have:
- drinking bowls;
- cap for the uterus;
- temporary places to keep the swarm.
To obtain, process and store bee products you will need:
- special devices for printing honeycombs;
- containers for heating cutting tools;
- honey extractor;
- storage tanks;
- wax extraction and processing tools;
- devices for a stable location of the framework and prevent their loss (wire, hole punch, fasteners and others).
Features of the bee colony
As you can see, it is completely easy to gradually master beekeeping for beginners. How to start choosing a family?
A beekeeper needs to have knowledge of the bees themselves and the characteristics of their existence and the distribution of responsibilities in the family.
- Uterus.Each such organizational cell has its own uterus - the main person in the family. It is much larger than the other individuals and is engaged in the reproduction of the genus. The uterus lays eggs in honeycombs, which allows the swarm to exist and increase quantitatively. Has its own security and attendants. A few bees feed her and clean her. The breeding process lasts from the beginning of spring to the first frost. The most reproductive is the 2-year-old womb. It is recommended to change the uterus every two to three years.
- DronesFor mating with the uterus in the bee family there are drones. These are fat and useless bees that die after they perform their duties. Such individuals are derived from unfertilized eggs. Worker bees expel drones and destroy their larvae immediately after fertilization of the uterus.
- Employees.The bulk of the bee swarm are working bees, divided into flight and hive.Each worker bee has its own duties. Hive - work inside the house, and the flight is engaged in the collection and delivery of pollen, nectar and water. Striped insects do not have a clear distribution of responsibilities. Sometimes the flight begin to bother inside, and the hives go for the prey.
Choosing the right breed of family will help the future beekeeper to make his debut in such a difficult but interesting process as beekeeping. A start has been made, the tool has been prepared, the hive has been installed - you can begin to choose a bee colony, the acquisition of which mainly falls on the spring period.
In order to properly conduct a beekeeping industry, it is necessary to understand the subtleties of the behavior planned for the placement of the family, its habits and characteristics. Consideration should also be given to the geographical location of the site with hives. This will allow to carry out work efficiently, reduce the cost of care and get the maximum benefit. Do not ignore the advice of experienced beekeepers. Communication with knowledgeable specialists will be able to prevent thoughtless actions and unforeseen situations in such important business as beekeeping for beginners.How to start choosing a bee breed?
Bees are divided into breeds, among which the most popular are:
- Central Russian.
- Gray Caucasian (mountain).
- Yellow Caucasian.
Each breed has its own preferences and characteristics, so before acquiring such families it is worth paying attention to their endurance in this climate.
In Russia, the most common is the Central Russian Forest, whose representatives are aggressive, but very efficient. They can easily winter, hardy to the harsh climatic conditions.
In the Caucasus, the gray mountain Caucasian breed is appreciated. These are peace-loving insects that prefer a warm climate, are less hardy and not adapted to the cold.
Beginners are advised to acquire the Krajina breed, which is similar in character to the Caucasian one. Very calm and non-aggressive insects. You can work with them even without a grid and smoke.
It is important to remember that you can not start several breeds at once.
The acquisition of bees requires special knowledge. Every living creature is subject to diseases, so in order to avoid spending money on further treatment, it is worth contacting a specialist or buying a family in a nursery. This will guarantee a healthy family and clean breed.It is not necessary to acquire unknown breeds, especially of foreign origin. Such bees are not adapted to local conditions, and care for them can be problematic. So, you decided to plunge into such an interesting occupation as beekeeping. How to start a newbie? With understanding the correctness of the terms in which you can make the purchase of bee colonies.
It is best to purchase them in the spring and summer, when there are already eggs, larvae and pupae. Such a family can give its first “harvest” already this year, and over the summer it will have time to stock up on everything necessary for winter existence.
It is necessary to transport and install ready-made frames with families in the dark when the whole family is assembled. It is not recommended to disturb bees before nightfall.
Proper observance of all the tips will help to organize the work of high quality and express themselves in such an interesting occupation as beekeeping. Where to start, how to succeed in this matter - in this article we gradually reveal the answers to such important questions.
How to start beekeeping? With quality care for bee colonies.You must regularly check the status of the ulv inside. A good sign is silence. The noisy behavior of bees suggests that something bothers them. This may be due to insufficient airing, inappropriate climate, humidity and other reasons.
You should not work with bees after eating garlic, drinking alcohol, using perfume. Strong odors cause irritation and aggression of insects. You should not work with hives in bad weather. Bees feel the mood of a person, so work in the apiary provides for calm behavior, without too much fuss and fear.
Inspections are recommended to be held once in two weeks, to keep a journal in which to analyze changes in the behavior of bees.
If you are stung by a bee, then you should not make sudden movements. This will attract other insects and may trigger their attack. It is better to leave the apiary, as the bees smell their own poison too.
Work with bees should be prompt, but without much haste. After removing the cover, you need to put a few clouds of smoke. This will calm the bees and make it possible to quietly change the frame.With a flick of the wrist you need to throw the bees off the frame or remove them with a special brush.
You should always have spare frames with you to immediately have time to replace them. It is not recommended during the inspection to move far away with the frames pulled out from the hive, and also to put them in a horizontal position.
Novice beekeepers should know that properly organized work in the apiary will not cause much interest among the bees, and they will calmly respond to the actions of the beekeeper.
Bee health and pest control
It is necessary to closely monitor the health of individuals and the microclimate in the hive. Ants, ticks and other individuals dangerous for the family should not be allowed to enter: wasps, hornets, caterpillars, birds, spiders and others that feed on the waste products of bees and destroy their offspring.
Diseases caused by microscopic pathogens and transmitted from insect to insect are of great danger to bees. To prevent them, beekeepers carry out prevention in the early spring, including her in planned care.
Also, the bees can get sick with improper organization of care, poor-quality feeding, violation of the rules of keeping, hypothermia, chemical poisoning.
Bees wintering: beekeeping for beginners
How to start preparing for the winter? Bees, like all living things, are preparing for winter in advance, stocking up with all the necessary nutrients. Caring beekeeper should contribute: feed them with cooked sugar syrup.
There are several ways of wintering:
- in the hives on the street;
- in special places (omshanik);
- under the snow.
It all depends on the climatic conditions and the breed of bees. Some beekeepers with the purpose of keeping heat in the hive fall asleep with snow. This is not always good, as it can trigger the appearance of mice. Also, do not bury or transfer the hives to damp basements or trenches. Remember that ventilation must be!
During the winter stay, bees can lose part of their family, and sometimes the entire swarm. This may be due to hypothermia or hunger. Insufficient feeding or unheated houses can cause death.
The issue of providing bees with food in the winter should be attended to at the end of the summer. Such work is carried out in several stages before the onset of the first cold days. One bee colony can consume 20 kg of sugar in the fall and winter.
With the onset of warm days in spring, you need to take care of your bees again so that they can quickly move away from winter days and gain strength. Therefore, food stocks must be constantly. If there is no feed, the bee is able to fly out after it and die because of the cold.
Top dressing can be carried out in the summer, when there is rainy weather, and there is no possibility to independently collect feed.
At first glance, beekeeping can seem very laborious and dangerous. But it is not so. Having mastered all the basics and secrets, applying them in practice, properly distinguishing and organizing the process, you can get pleasure from communicating with the bees. Work in the fresh air, the ability to constantly improve their skills will transform such an occupation into a pleasant and profitable business.