Australian climate and inland waters
Australia is the most remote and isolated continent. Her land has not yet been explored. In this article we will look at the main characteristics of Australia: climate, inland waters and natural areas.
The lion's share of the continental part of the continent is in the subtropical zone. For almost the entire year, it is subject to the influence of dry winds that come from central regions. The strongest impulses are observed in the period from May to September.
With the onset of June, the zone, which includes the north-western territories of the country, is dominated by monsoons. The presence of moist air masses is associated with low atmospheric pressure, which is established in the Kimberley region. Rain brings winds blowing from the Arafur and Timor seas.
The rest of Australia is hot and arid. The northern lands of the continent are considered one of the hottest coastal areas on the planet. In more detail about the unique climatic conditions of the continent tell in the classroom geography.The topic of the lesson is “Climate and Inland Waters of Australia”.
In January, cyclone rains pass over Tasmania and are established in the southern territories of the mainland. In the east of the continent, the humidity level gradually rises. The influence of the trade winds is most pronounced in the environs of Newcastle. Southeastern winds bring fog and a huge amount of moisture.
When these trade winds rise to the height of the mountain slopes located on the eastern tip of Australia, they cool down and produce an abundance of precipitation. Since the climate and inland waters of Australia are closely interrelated, the water level in the lakes and rivers of the continent varies and depends on the time of year.
In February, in the Brisbane and Cooktown areas, cyclones that come from the northeast coast cause colossal disasters. Hurricanes destroy residential and agricultural buildings. Heavy rain erodes the roads and takes away the fertile soil layer, destroys the crops. Sometimes these cyclones reach the boundaries of Port Hedland and Derby. In the second half of the 20th century, in December, a similar hurricane almost completely destroyed the Australian city of Darwin.
Briefly about the inland waters of Australia
Precipitation falling on the mainland, differ in small volume. Therefore, the main watershed is located near the east coast of the continent. Moreover, the hydrographic system has an unusual configuration. First, its river runoff is minimal. Secondly, the boundaries are not clearly expressed.
Reservoirs located in the center of the continent, almost completely dry. Channels are empty and those rivers that are sent to the west. Only eastern tributaries remain full-flowing. They originate in mountain ranges or are located in the territory of Tasmania. Almost all of them belong to the basin of inland waters of Australia.
The maximum concentration of tributaries is localized in the lands of Marrambiji, Darling, Goulburn, New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria. Together with the largest river of the mainland Murray, they occupy about 1,072,800 square kilometers. Some upstream merge. Their beds become wide, but they remain winding. They all flow towards the sea.
The Marrambiji is the second largest river in Australia. Its length is 1,690 kilometers. It begins in the region of Qom and carries its waters into Murray.A large-scale hydropower system is in place of the runoff. Darling supplies water to the southern part of the continent.
It drains the mountain ranges in the east. The length of the river is 2 740 kilometers. In the Wentuerta area, Darling flows into Murray. The flow is regulated by dam structures. The river is growing shallower in the period of prolonged heat. Australian inland drainage has a fragmented nature. Western tributaries operate only a few months a year. Their beds lead to swamps or lakes.
List of major rivers of the continent:
- Cooper Creek.
Almost all small tributaries carry their waters into Lake Eyre. But they only managed to fill the foundation pit only once in 1950.
The basis of the system of inland waters of Australia is the Murray River. It flows down into the valley from the peaks of the Dividing Range. It is nourished by rain and melting snow. Maximum water consumption occurs in the summer months. Today, dams have been built on the river. Prior to their appearance, Murray provoked the flooding of nearby lands.
Tributaries are littered with fragments of rocks and tree trunks torn from their roots.Formed stagnant swampy areas. Currently, Australians regulate and control the flow of the main river of the mainland. The abundance of artificial pits allows you to accumulate sufficient reserves of fresh water. They are used for irrigation of land in the dry season. Dams prevent the removal of fertile soil. Information from the textbook on geography confirms this.
The study of the characteristics of the system of inland waters of Australia in the 7th grade implies a detailed consideration of seasonal changes. In winter, the river level drops noticeably But the flow on its sites is not interrupted anywhere. The exception is the zone that is in the upstream. In the period of prolonged heat, it grows shallower.
Due to the active use of water to meet the agricultural needs of local farmers, Murray sometimes does not reach the ocean. The development of the agricultural sector explains the intense pollution of the main artery of the continent. Every year the river carries about a hundred tons of salt. Therefore, local do not use it for irrigation of citrus trees. Productivity gradually decreases, and then fruit groves perish.
Features of the internal waters of Australia are in the unique structure of pits and bowls. Local lakes are reservoirs that are almost always empty. Their bottoms are covered with a layer of saline clay soils. About once a year, they are partially filled. The water in them is salty and mixed with silt.
A huge number of similar pits are concentrated in the west of the continent. The largest lakes are located on the southern lands of the mainland. These are Eyre, Torrens, Frome and Gerdner. In the east, they are replaced by lagoons filled with salt water. They are separated from the ocean by sandy mounds and shoals overgrown with vegetation. The largest reservoirs are located in Tasmania. The water in them is fresh. They have hydroelectric power stations.
The lake occupies a plain located in the center of the mainland. It is the largest body of water on the continent. Its basin collects drains of dozens of small rivers. Throughout the year it is shallow. Its outlines do not have clear boundaries and change from time to time. The water in it is very salty.
The lake is usually divided into two parts, the north and south. In the rainy season, tributaries bring an abundance of torrential masses into the pit.The level of the lake increases markedly. The northern and southern parts are connected. The maximum surface area of the water is 15 thousand square kilometers. In the summer, Ayr is growing smaller. It is divided into many small lakes, which are separated by bald spots. The surface of the bare land is covered with salt crusts.
The lion's share of Australian farmers use aquatic deposits from underground sources. The area of their pools exceeds 3,240 square kilometers. The reservoirs are characterized by a high content of mineral substances that are dissolved in their waters. The content of some underground lakes is dangerous for vegetation, but it is suitable for organizing watering of farm animals.
Artesian basin is considered the largest in the world. It occupies the territory of Queensland, New South Wales, North and South Australia. Its area exceeds 1,700 square kilometers. The water is warm. It is used for watering sheep, so livestock is developed in these areas.
Other artesian water pools are located in western Australia and in the state of Victoria.
The minimum amount of moisture on the continent falls around Lake Eyre. This region receives less than 250 millimeters of rain a year.Growing crops in this area without providing additional irrigation is impossible.
In the center of the mainland there are territories where it has not rained for several years. The maximum moisture concentration occurs in the mountain plateaus, localized near Queensland.