At what altitude does the helicopter fly? Maximum altitude of helicopter flight
For a helicopter (helicopter), the maximum heightflight is determined by two "ceilings": static and dynamic. In the first case, we are talking about vertical lifting only with the help of a rotor. This indicator is usually lower. In the second case, the lifting is carried out with the help of a screw, and due to the speed of linear displacement. In this case, you can climb higher.
At the airplane, the lifting force is generated byspeed and configuration of the wing. The helicopter rises altogether differently. The maximum altitude of the flight rarely exceeds 3000-3500 m. For lifting, a power plant and a rotor are used. The speed is not comparable with the aircraft, but the helicopter can easily take off without a takeoff, land on an unprepared runway, hang in place, move sideways.
According to the instruction, pilots are forbidden to switch offengines during landing on high-altitude platforms from 3000 meters. Normal operation for most helicopters in normal mode is possible up to 4.5 km. Above this threshold the air becomes thin and the propeller blades need to be given the limiting angles of attack. And this can lead to abnormal situations.
For an objective definition of indicatorsIt is necessary to identify the type of helicopter. The maximum flight altitude can be set for four subclasses of rotorcraft, to which the International Aviation Federation (FAI) divided them according to design features.
In addition to helicopters, goggles are alsowhich the main screw does not change the angle of inclination and is used only to create a lifting force. Another subclass is convertoplanes. Their screws together with the engines are directed upwards during take-off, and during a horizontal flight they turn and work like airplanes. Separately, a subclass of rotorcraft is distinguished, in which, in addition to the main propeller, lateral aerodynamic planes on the body (wings) are used to create a lifting force.
Still all helicopters are divided into five groups independing on takeoff weight: from 500 kg to 4500 kg. In addition, determine the type of destination: civilian or military. Among them, separate subclasses may be allocated depending on the specific use: transport, multipurpose, search and rescue, fire, agricultural, helicopter cranes and others.
Helicopter: maximum altitude of flight
Both static and dynamic "ceilings" havelimiting indicators. Limitations are introduced to determine the boundaries, exceeding which can lead to the detachment of airflow from the main rotor blades. Confident rotorcraft are kept in the air at altitudes up to 4500 m with the definition of the maximum "ceiling" for individual cars up to 6 km.
The maximum altitude of a helicopter flight,recorded as an absolute record, is 12,442 m. It was installed by the French balloonist Jean Bule. His Aerospatiale "Lama", belonging to the subclass "helicopters", was able to overcome the 12-kilometer boundary in 1972. That flight could end fatal, since at an altitude where the temperature was lower - 60 ° C, engine decayed. The pilot had to set another record - the maximum altitude drop in the self-rotation mode of the main propeller.
Adopted twin-screw machine withcoaxial arrangement of them - Ka-50 - has a static ceiling, defined by technical characteristics at a level of 4000 meters. The maximum altitude of the flight of the helicopter "Shark" in dynamics can be up to 5500 meters. The cruise speed is 260 km / h, sideways - 80 km / h, the rear - up to 90 km / h. The height dials in the mode of 28 m / s. Is able to perform a complete "dead loop", although such a maneuver is dangerous because of the high probability of screwing.
For comparison, the maximum altitude of flightThe Mi-26 helicopter is 6500 m, and the M-28 is 5800 m. The American Apache AN-64 can be raised to 6400 m. The upgraded Ka-52 Alligator, like the Shark, flies at an altitude of 5700 m .