Ascension Cathedral Novocherkassk: history, description and interesting facts
In 2005, the city of Novocherkassk celebrated a double anniversary - two hundred years of the founding of the city and laying the main temple of the Cossacks here. Ascension Cathedral Novocherkassk specifically for this date was restored. The appearance was restored in accordance with the drawings and drawings of the beginning of the 20th century. The military cathedral Ascension Cathedral is considered to be the third largest in Russia after Moscow’s Christ the Savior and St. Petersburg St. Isaac’s.
Ascension Cathedral (Novocherkassk)
The temple is visible from afar, it is clearly visible from the rivers Tuzlov and Aksay, which wash the hill where Novocherkassk is located. The bell tower rises to 74.7 meters. The height of the dome is in seventh place in Russia. The cross on the main dome is encrusted with rock crystal, cut with diamonds. The light, refracted in the diamond facets, shines like the sun, reflected in the golden domes.
The Ascension Cathedral of Novocherkassk is famous for its interior decoration.The iconostasis and floors are finished with marble, specially ordered from France and Italy. Striking variety of frescoes. The depicted faces of the saints, lit by candles, look from the walls and columns. Choirs adorn the paintings, which capture the most significant events in the history of the Don Cossacks.
At the beginning of the last century, the Ascension Cathedral of Novocherkassk had a unique heating and ventilation system, in those years it was a huge breakthrough in the technical sense. Bold engineering developments allowed to create a comfortable atmosphere inside the cathedral, to ensure the complete preservation of painting, frescoes, iconostasis. Nowadays, unfortunately, this system has been lost.
The lower part of the temple - the tomb, consecrated in honor of the Protection of the Virgin. Here are the sarcophagi made of Italian and French marble. In them lie the remains of the generals - the heroes of the war of 1812: Ephraim, Orlov-Denisov, Baklanov; the founder of the Don capital Platov, Archbishop John Dobrozrakov.
The baptismal church is also here. The depth of the basement is 15 m, the underground passage from it leads to the Officers' House.
History. First temple
The city was founded in 1805, at the same time the Ascension Cathedral of Novocherkassk was laid. For some unknown reasons, construction began only in 1811. The author of the project himself - a staunch supporter of classicism - Italian architect Aloysius Rusca, supervised the work. The architect left Russia in 1818, the work was not finished yet, and our master Amvrosimov continued the work. Unfortunately, the construction did not end well.
In 1846, when work was underway on the construction of the dome, a large part of the facade collapsed. Gorgeous construction in an instant became a pile of debris. There was no one inside the building at that time, it was just a holiday, so there were no casualties. At the same time, this was reported to the king. A commission was sent to the site, which revealed gross errors in the architectural design, as well as during construction. They caused the collapse of the building. In addition, the construction materials used were of very low quality. Forty years of work went to ashes.
After some time, work on the construction of the temple resumed. The building was commissioned to an experienced architect, Walpredde.The project was compiled anew, accepted it by the most stringent technical criteria. But evil rock was inexorable this time. At the same stage of work in 1863, the same collapse occurred as it did 17 years ago. What is it? A foreshadowing or the will of God? Remains a mystery. Another commission found the cause of excessive haste in construction. However, the architect himself was not blamed for this, because he had repeatedly in writing notified the government about the rush in work that would affect quality. He simply had to obey the orders of the local authorities and the atamans of the Cossacks.
Start of construction
But how to live without the temple of God to the Cossacks? Before making a decision on the construction of the temple, there was a stormy debate - to restore the destroyed building or dismantle it completely and start a new construction? We decided to completely clear the place; this was done in 1882. In 1891, the Cossacks decided to build a new Voznesensky military council (Novocherkassk).
The project was approved by Emperor Alexander II. The author of the third draft of the Ascension Church was the Don architect of the Cossack army Yaschenko.Shortly before that, he was awarded the title of academician. Unfortunately, he was not destined to see his child. In 1893 he passed away. Work at this time were at the stage of building the foundation.
The new temple was built under special control. Past sad experience has taught a lot. New head Zlobin when laying in the basement found serious violations. The construction was again suspended, thorough checks were made, and the work was supervised by higher authorities. No irresponsibility in construction was allowed.
The use of engineering technology. Temple consecration
Colonel Limarenko, who had just finished building a cathedral in Kovno fortress, was called up to help in the construction. He explored the basement, pointed out errors in the structure and was appointed head of the construction site. Here he first proposed the use of concrete and reinforced concrete structures. And this is not the only innovation that was used when the Ascension Cathedral was erected; Novocherkassk has its own brick factory, where they produced 2 million bricks per year.A water supply system was built through which water was supplied from the river to the construction site. They built their own power station. A private laboratory was also built, where construction materials were checked for quality. At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, the construction of the temple was approached with all seriousness, which was supported by innovations of technical progress.
In 1901, stucco and plastering work was completed. The firm "Siegel" supplied the temple with a heating and ventilation system. So, after only ten years from the basement works, a 75-meter religious building was raised up, which could hold 5 thousand worshipers. Construction costs then amounted to 2 million rubles. Nine bells lifted ropes manually. Anyone interested in the Novocherkassad could participate in this event.
In May 1905, a hundred years after the first temple was laid, the consecration of the Novocherkassk Cathedral took place. Cossacks came together from all the stanitsas to such a grand event. All their lives, they remembered and told their descendants about the handsome temple, whose name was given to “The Second Sun of the Don”.
Years of atheism
During the years of atheistic insanity under the Soviet regime, the Ascension Military Cathedral in Novocherkassk did not bypass the troubles.In the 1930s, the church was closed, services stopped, and copper plates and crosses were removed from the domes. In the most beautiful temple of Russia, the Soviets staged a warehouse of combustible materials. In 1942, the temple was opened for services when the city was under occupation.
After the Second World War, food was stored in the basement of the cathedral: flour, grain, sugar, and beer malt. In the upper church, however, services were sometimes held on major church holidays. The year 1953 became a salutary for the Ascension Church in Novocherkassk. After the death of Joseph Stalin, the collapsed building, which has historical and architectural value, came to the attention of scientists. Assessing the significance of the object, the authorities gave the go-ahead to carry out interior and facade repairs. In 1974, the temple became a monument of architecture, first of local importance, and in 1995 - federal.
Holy Ascension Cathedral, Novocherkassk: Revival
The situation has changed during perestroika times and the associated democratic reforms. Believers throughout the country regained temples and monasteries that were lost during the period of theomachicking Thousands of temple buildings became the property of the Church and found a new life.Novocherkassk authorities have allocated funds for restoration work, which involved a lot of specialists. In 2005, the city celebrated its anniversary, and by this date the original appearance of the temple was restored.
"The Second Sun of the Don"
As if the sun again shone Holy Ascension Cathedral Novocherkassk in 2010-2011. The domes were then covered with gold leaves, the cross was treated with stones made of rock crystal. In the spring of 2014, according to the Decree of Patriarch Kirill, the Church of the Ascension received the status of the Patriarchal Ascension Troops All-Charming Cathedral. Now this temple has become the second Patriarchal Cathedral in Russia. The first is the Assumption Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin.
Anyone who visits the temple in the evening cannot take his eyes off the majestic beauty of the temple, which is enhanced by the lighting. The original modern lighting system designs biblical scenes on the white walls of the building. General illumination gives the temple a more solemn and majestic appearance. Internal restoration work continues, the temple will soon find its true original appearance.
Ascension Church is famous not only for architectural perfection and wealth of the internal painting.The history of Novocherkassk is connected with the Don Cossacks, the city always remained a true believer and preserving the glory of the miraculous icons, the relics of holy saints. Metric books of the Ascension Cathedral of Novocherkassk can reveal many secrets about the past generation.
Anyone who is in the temple, can worship the prayed images, which are famous phenomena miracles. These shrines are icons of the Virgin: "Aksai", "Don", "Recovery of the dead", "Life-giving source."
In the Church of the Ascension is the tomb, where the ashes of St. John Dobrozrakov lie. Believers throughout the country are aware of the power of prayer that is carried up in these holy places.
The service schedule in the Ascension Church is no different from many Russian churches. But spirituality, solemnity, which hovers here under the arches, puts the cathedral in one of the first places in Russia. It belongs to him by right, and everyone who has been here will confirm this.