Artist Jerome Bosch: Paintings
Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516) is a mystery artist for his and even more so for all subsequent generations. His phantasmagoria was interpreted not only by inexperienced spectators, but also by the clergy, as well as by philosophers, art historians and, of course, artists.
General characteristics of creativity
None of his paintings evoke an unequivocal opinion: there are so many medieval symbols there, the significance of which we do not know or have partially or completely lost. They contain many personal images, simply “rebuses,” born of the state of mind and the artist’s mind. It is also difficult to assess his work because the artist himself did not give them any names, offering to think anything about them, without pushing the thought onto a hackneyed track. In this article we will look at individual pictures of Bosch with names and descriptions.
Triptych - an allegory of greed
The closed doors of the painting “The cart of hay”, one of the masterpieces of the master, immediately make one feel anxious: a man tortured by life wanders along the road with robbers. On his way are the bones and the skull, followed by a dog that wants to bite him.At the traveler in the hands of a stick, with which he is ready to defend himself against an animal that is associated with slander. The gallows in the background does not prevent the peasants from arranging a party and dancing. Before the wanderer lies an unreliable bridge. Its boards and supports can not withstand its weight. Everything around is a matter of thought about whether a person will reach his goal and what it is. But here the sashes are open, and involuntarily the eyes stop in the center: this is where the person comes from the valves.Christ looks to the multi-figured composition from above from the clouds. He is in utter disappointment from what he saw, only spreads his hands. Down below him, rages Greed. God put all that is good and bad in the bottom and intended it for everyone. By the standards of people, hay is a worthless and cheap product. No matter how you type it, you will not be richer. Nevertheless, they all grab him with the help of forks, ladders, and simply with arms from below with armfuls of arms, who can carry so much. No one pays attention to those who came to the Pope and the emperor, as well as to the fact that this stack was slipped by the devils, seducing them to theft, and they themselves were slowly taking the cart with him. People completely lost their heads from damovshchina, which they fell on the way, and each is an example of how the pursuit of earthly goods turns into a mortal sin.No better than their high-ranking officials, who are the owners of the stack. They do not interfere in the bustle, do not stop the mad people, thus showing the sin of pride. Charity pushes people on the path of deception: pretend to be blind and extort alms, pretend to be a doctor, hitting gullible diplomas and medicine bottles. Even the nuns succumbed to the general insanity and fill the bag with hay. An obese monk sits in a chair nearby. His blurred body says that he is guilty of the sin of gluttony. Three loving couples who retired in different places - on a cart among the invisible angels and near in the bushes and just on the ground - indulge in amorous pleasures. An owl sits above them, like evil personified. This is the way Bosch scourges, whose paintings, for all their phantasmagorism, are vital, the sin of love.
The left casement is dedicated to Eve, who is seduced by an apple, which the tempter held out to her, the theme continues in another space of the casement. Eve turned away from the Archangel and looks at the earthly world of the central leaf — that will be the bitter consequence of her sin. And God still gazes at everything from heaven distressed and disappointed.
The right wing is Hell.The preachers in the church tried to eloquently describe to the laity all the horrors of the Underworld. Only Hieronymus Bosch, whose paintings showed nightmares based on biblical stories, vividly painted his fires and lights, as well as what the demonic construction of the Tower of Babel leads to. Dreadful beings, whom the thought of an ordinary person cannot imagine, already turn sinners into it.
"Rotterdam", "Pilgrim" or "Peddle"
It was also called the "Prodigal Son" - a picture of Bosch, which various sources refer to 1500 or 1510. The muffled color silently captured the poverty of the inhabitants of the tavern, past which goes the tattered traveler with a bandaged leg.All researchers Bosch creativity, he creates associations with a man, wandering through the doors of the "cart of hay." They hold the same sticks in their hands, the dog runs after them, like a metaphorical slander. Behind the ragged one is a knapsack with uncomplicated possessions, on the belt is a dagger, for the roads are full of dangers. There are different shoes on his feet, which he picked up anywhere. The poor fellow had already passed the collapsing tavern, but he paused in thought, whether to turn back.The tavern is terrible: the roof is falling apart, there is a couple in the open doors, which are frankly busy with each other, around the corner a man meets his needs. This building, attracted the attention of the wanderer, according to Bosch is all the worldly temptations that the devil sends to people. The stranger hesitates and is almost ready to give in to temptation.
The attractiveness of the artist
Bosch's contemporaries amused the grotesque of his images. They understood its symbolism better than us: red is passion, green is kindness, blue is earthly pleasures or deceit, black birds are sin. It is known that Bosch not only left his picture without a name, but also did not date it. We say again that his contemporaries, buying them, knew the time of creation and the sequence in which they should be considered. Today without dates it is difficult to trace the evolution of the artist’s development. All his paintings are amazing, but the dynamics, style changes, they are not visible. It remains only to delve deeply into what was written by Hieronymus Bosch, whose paintings evoked the desire of artists to imitate them. And all because they were successfully sold and approved by the church for showing the fullness of punishments in Hell, which are waiting for everyone who has sinned.Mysterious Bosch, whose paintings were not by chance appreciated and preserved by the most zealous Catholics of Europe in Escurial and Prado, are called: "Carrying the Seine" (already reviewed), "Garden of Delights", "Seven Deadly Sins ...", "Adoration of the Magi".
Triptych from the collection of Spanish kings
Looking at the closed doors, which depict the world on the 3rd day of creation, stern and gray, behind which is Bosch's most famous painting, “The Garden of Earthly Delights”, the viewer cannot imagine what color kaleidoscope is hidden behind them.
On the left casement is Eden, where, at first glance, all creatures ideally coexist with each other. In the background, giraffe, elephant, mythical unicorns graze on green grass and drink water from the purest sources, but as we approach the viewer we see an owl, which looks out of a pink source of life. She is a symbol not only of wisdom, but also of the night with her hunting for living. Ruthlessness is what it means for a painter. Bosch fills with unexpected scenes in the foreground scenes of eating birds and the cat of their victims. And this happens before the eyes of only Adam and God, who has woken up, who leads Eve to her by the hand.
The central leaf tells about the numerous sins of men. About the voluptuousness to which all people indulge. Berries, which they eat - blackberries and "strawberry" of incredible size - means the same thing as in our time - scabrousness and eroticism. The nakedness and near-sexuality of people only reinforces the impression of the great sin of Sodom, to which everyone happily surrenders.
Only the third, right triptych bears the inevitability of punishment for what has been done, for it is a black Hell. "Garden of Delights" (picture of Bosch) - a warning to all people: sin, but know the measure, otherwise you will have to drink a bitter cup of punishment. On this part of the triptych, various punishments are shown: for gluttony, for the passion for gambling, for excessive love of music, people are chained to harps and flutes. In the center on the head of a man-tree is a devilish dance. The fiery river takes the sinners into the blazing flames. Next, we will continue to consider the pictures of Bosch with a description.
Concept of hell
In the Middle Ages and later, some people asked themselves a strange question: “Does Hell and Paradise exist now?” Indeed, according to Scripture, it should open only after the Last Judgment, which has not yet arrived on our sinful earth.The Grozny Judge has not yet sat on the throne and has not sent virtuous and sinful souls to their destination. “Where are the souls now, since there was no Court?” Asked inquiring minds and went for such questions to the fire. How will the soul reunite with the body? With his young shell, or if the man died an ancient old man, then in this form, he will remain? “And if a Christian martyr was torn up and eaten by wild animals in the arena, how would his body be collected?” - and such questions were asked too. “Perhaps, there will be no reunion of soul and body at all?” This also worried individual theologians. “If this should happen, how will the soul find its body exactly in the assembly of the dead over the past millennia?” These questions have no answer to this day. Without further ado, Bosch painted pictures depicting both Heaven and Hell, which are already in operation. According to the Scriptures, they are still closed. This is a blasphemous thought for the church.
Angry satire on the church as an institution turns around when considering "Ship of Fools". Bosch's picture shows a ship. He, by tradition, is a symbol of the Church and leads the soul to the heavenly pier. What do we see with Bosch?Shepherds and congregations are jointly non-existent.The nun plays the white lute, which has traditionally been considered a symbol of the vagina. This is immorality and fornication. On an improvised table is a dish of cherries, which means lust. A merry feast filled with the sin of gluttony is in full swing. A roasted piglet is tied to the mast, and one of the participants in this indecent act draws a knife to it. The other stuffed up vomiting. Now it is the Ship of Evil, and it sails straight to Hell. It is driven by a branch, and the mast is a tree. The jester, who in gray clothes with bells, turned away from the general merriment, is in charge of everything. He is a living conviction of folly and godlessness. His figure was perceived by his contemporaries in context with the satirical book of S. Brandt “Ship of Fools”. Bosch's picture is not an illustration of her. The book was a creative impulse to create the original work, which is now kept in the Louvre.
Satire in the works of the artist
Back in the 17th century, the works written by Hieronymus Bosch were very much appreciated. The paintings were considered as satire on the binge of passions, perversion and in general on all sinful. We will not be able to consider the entire heritage of the master - 25 paintings.Three more works that Bosch wrote are pictures with the names: “Last Judgment”, “The Seven Deadly Sins ...” and “The Temptation of St. Anthony "- we will look at our review.
Academy of Art in Vienna
It contains the largest triptych, the Last Judgment, which Bosch created between 1500 and 1505 years. Already his outer doors inspire concern. They are preparing the viewer for the frightening inside the spectacle.
Before you - a reproduction of Bosch's painting. The photo below represents this tragedy of the Last Judgment.Christ in the clouds in the glory of Glory is in little Paradise, which occupies only a third of the central triptych. With him, very few righteous people turned up in heaven. On a black background is Hell beneath. In the underworld there are people who are punished for all the deadly sins. The fanciful imagination of the artist very faithfully depicts hellish torments: on the saucer he put the millstones and made some sinners crush them to others. In addition, they suffer from spears, daggers and arrows, which pierced them. In medieval symbolism, these tools revealed sexual relationships between people. Not only devils, but also devils work in the Underworld with pleasure.They hang people on hooks, like carcasses in a butcher shop, bake them in ovens and fry killers and stingy people in frying pans.
The left casement is a lost flowering Paradise after the violation of the prohibition of God by Eve. Black birds of sin and swarm in the clouds when the cherub drives the people out of Eden by the sword.
The right wing brings the viewer back to hellfire, the torment and the wailing of sinful humanity. The chimeras and monsters depicted by the artist’s violent imagination are diverse and inexhaustible.
This is a tabletop that has never been to her and always hung on the wall of Escorial. It is called “The Seven Deadly Sins and Four Last Things” and depicts the eye of the Lord. Christ is in the center of the pupil. He sees everything that the inscription in Latin reports in the second round. The fourth round is the most interesting. It is divided into seven sectors with seven deadly sins. Gluttony, laziness, lust, pride, anger, greed and envy pass before us. Their constancy is underlined by the continuous circling.
Four last things the artist arranged in circles in the corners: Death, Last Judgment, Hell and Paradise. Especially scary is one of the two inscriptions on the scrolls, a terrible warning from the Lord - to turn away your Face from sinners and see their end.
Order from Lisbon
The Temptation of St. Anthony has various interpretations, but at Bosch the triptych acquires a universal scale.
The leaves are made in the favorite technique of a dim grizayli. In one of them, Christ is captured, betrayed by Judas. On the second he fell on the way to Calvary, unable to bear the weight of the cross.
The central part was filled with demons of all kinds and the wicked. It is a black mass.
On the left casement the saint himself is depicted twice. For the first time, St. Anthony lies on a flying winged devil, immersed in prayer, and does not notice that among them are a toad, a fox, and water with fish. The prayer of the saint is stronger than demonic tricks. The second time, he is surrounded by fellow monks after the fall. It is believed that among them Bosch painted his portrait.
On the right casement, the holy hermit is depicted in the desert. A beautiful devil appeared to him to fall into sin with her. But the hermit does not look at her, and then the city of demons rises before him - this is Hell, where the temptress wants to lure the saint. A black mass and a sabbath are organized to seduce the saint. What is just not done to shake faith! A naked woman peeks attractively from a dry tree, before St.Antony of demons laid the table so that he would be seduced and broke the fast and indulge in the sin of gluttony. This fuss does not concern a saint who is strong in faith.
At the same time we finish the consideration of works that were written by the great artist Bosch. His paintings are still relevant today, since the sins remain the same.