A plow is ... Definition, use, marks
A plow is an agricultural machine used for plowing soil. The main working bodies are the knife, the body and the skimmer.
Functions performed by working bodies
The body is designed for cutting the soil layer, its wrapping and partial loosening. The knife cuts in the vertical direction the soil layer. With the help of the skimmer, a layer of sod is partially removed, which is discharged to the bottom of the furrow.
Most plows are currently designed to work on a tractor or motoblock. There are various classification features of such a device. This is the case design, and the purpose, and the type of thrust, and the method of aggregation, and the number of plow bodies, and plowing technology.
According to the first classification sign, plows are distinguished:
- plowshare (the most common);
- disk (for reforestation and plowing of heavy swim-in soils);
- chisel (deep-rippers without turning the reservoir);
- rotational (working bodies make reciprocating movements, are considered promising for further use);
- combined (there are working bodies of different types of plows).
The following subdivisions of this agricultural tool will be considered in relation to plow plows.
According to the second classification criterion, plow plows are divided into general-purpose and special devices (garden, bush-marsh, etc.).
By type of traction, they are subdivided into cable traction tools, horse and tractor.
Plows can be aggregated with a tractor in the hook-on way, hinged and semi-mounted.
According to the number of plow bodies, they can be from single to three-body as well as multi-body.
More plows differ in plowing technology. In the subjects, where small areas of the field prevail, the units for smooth plowing with switched on alternately versatile bodies are mainly used. In the same classification unit allocate plows for dumping plowing.
The plows for tractors include such as PLN-4-35, 3-35, 5-35, 6-35, differing in the number of hulls and traction class of the aggregated tractors. The first number shows the number of shells, the second one shows the width in cm.Used for plowing non-stone soils with a specific resistance of up to 9 N / cm2. The maximum plowing depth is 30 cm.
The semi-mounted plows are brand PL-5-40. They have a mechanism for changing the width of the grip. PL-5-40 can be used for plowing to a depth of 30 cm, and can be used for bezotvalnoe processing to a depth of 40 cm. It is aggregated with tractors of traction class 3, 4.
The planer plows include, for example, PPN-40, which has one body, a grip width of 40 cm, a processing depth of up to 45 cm, and is aggregated with DT-75MB. Its speed is limited to 3-4 km / h.
Of the new plows, you can use disc models MOSH brands ADP from 2 to 6 (ADP2, ADP3 ... ADP6). The figure shows the number of cases. Disks work by rotation, without falling into obstacles. It is mounted. Depending on the number of discs, it can be used for coupling with various tractors.
Examples of chisel plows may beSVAROG 2.5, which can be aggregated with tractors that have a small capacity (up to 150 hp), the most common in farms. Processing depth up to 45 cm.
This also includes plows ПЧП-4,5, ПЧ-6. The more shells, the more powerful the tractor is required, the PWP-4.5 already requires a power of 300 liters. with., and for PCh-6 up to 480 l. from.The numbers in the title indicate the width in meters.
Speed of movement of mounted plow plows for tractors mainly fluctuates in the range of 7-9 km / h.
Plows used with walking tractors
Plows for motoblock are divided into two groups:
- negotiable, which can be made independently;
- rotary, allowing to work the soil with the dumping of the land on the side of the trench.
In the reverse model, you can replace or sharpen the knife. The plow should not have a shortened blade, a thin rack, poor-quality steel and a thin sheet of body.
In addition, for the motoblock double-sided plows are used - they are in essence hillocks, but they can be used for tillage, cutting furrows, and backfilling them when the motoblock is in reverse.
Such plows with a constant width of work on light motor-blocks (up to 30 kg and 3.5 liters. Pp.). Variable width requires more powerful motoblocks.
In addition, the Zykov plow can be used on the motoblock, which allows us to almost completely destroy weeds. When working with tillers for better quality of plowing, you need to use grousers. They must have sufficient mass.
Features of plowing
Since the plow is an agricultural machine, it must be used in accordance with its purpose and depending on the equipment with which it is mounted.
So, when plowing dry soil to the tractor plows hang rollers, wet - harrows. Late autumn processing is done without these tools. For high-speed plowing plow using energy-saturated tractor.
If the field has a lot of plant residues, it is littered with perennial weeds, then use devices with semi-screw bodies.
When plowing the tiller, it is necessary to change the direction of movement annually; it is better to carry out plowing along the long side of the plot. The low speed of this device will not allow to produce a plow blade for the motor-block. High speeds make it difficult to plow.
With increased soil density, it needs to be plowed in two passes:
- first set at a shallower depth;
- second to big.
They are determined depending on which tractor they are designed for and how many buildings they have. Plows for motoblocks usually have one body and, as a rule, small dimensions.
A plow is a tool that makes life easier for gardeners and farmers. It is enough for a summer resident to hang it on a walk-behind tractor for processing a small area, therefore the plows are mostly small. The farmer needs to handle large areas, so here the plows are aggregated with tractors. The more shells in the device, the more energy-efficient tractor is required.