A hurricane is ... Hurricanes, storms, tornadoes, tornadoes. Effects
Our planet is beautiful, and people consider themselves to be full owners of it. They changed her face like nothing else before the beginning of human life. But there are forces that can not be controlled, even by applying the highest technology. These include hurricanes, storms, tornadoes, which constantly destroy everything that is dear to people. And it is impossible to stop. You can only hide and wait for the end of the wrath of nature. So how do these phenomena arise and what consequences threaten the victims? The answers to these questions have long been given by scientists.
Hurricane is a complex weather phenomenon. Its main characteristic is a very strong wind having a speed of more than 30 meters per second (120 km / h). His second name is typhoon, which is a huge whirlwind. The pressure in the center of it is reduced. Forecasters also clarify that a hurricane is a tropical cyclone in case it formed in South or North America. The life cycle of this monster lasts from 9 to 12 days.At this time, he moves around the planet, causing damage to everything that he encounters. For convenience, each of them is assigned a name, most often a female. A hurricane is, among other things, a huge bundle of energy that is not inferior in its power to an earthquake. One hour of vortex life releases about 36 MW of energy, as in a nuclear explosion.
Causes of hurricanes
Scientists call the ocean the constant deposit of this phenomenon, namely those areas that are located in the tropics. The likelihood of a hurricane increases with approaching the equator. The reasons for its appearance are many. It can be, for example, the force with which our planet rotates, or differences in temperature between the layers of the atmosphere, or the difference in atmospheric pressure. But these processes may not be the beginning of the birth of a hurricane. Another of the main conditions for the formation of a typhoon is a certain temperature of the underlying surface, namely water. It should not be below 27 degrees Celsius. This shows that in order to form a hurricane at sea, we need a set of favorable factors.
The storm (storm) is also characterized by strong wind, but its speed is lower than during a hurricane.The wind gust speed in a storm is 24 meters per second (85 km / h). It can pass both over the water areas of the planet and over land. It can be quite large in its area. The duration of the storm can be a couple of hours or several days. At this time there is a very heavy rainfall. This leads to additional destructive phenomena, such as landslides and mudslides. This phenomenon on the Beaufort scale is located one level lower than the hurricane. The storm in its most extreme manifestation can reach 11 points. It is considered the strongest storm, which was recorded in 2011. She passed over the Philippine Islands and brought thousands of deaths and destruction in the millions of dollars.
Storm and Hurricane Classification
Hurricanes are divided into two types:
- tropical - those that originated in the tropics;
- extratropical - those that originated in other parts of the planet.
Non-tropical divide into:
The classification of storms, which would be considered generally accepted, is not yet available. But most weather forecasters divide them into:
- vortex - complex formations arising due to cyclones and covering a large area;
- streaming - small storms of a local nature.
The vortex storm may be snowy, dusty or squall. In winter, such storms are also called blizzards or snowstorms. Squally can occur very quickly and just as quickly end.
Streaming storm can be jet or drain. If it is jet, the air moves horizontally or rises along a slope, and if it is drained, it moves down a slope.
Hurricanes and tornadoes often accompany each other. Tornado is called a whirlwind, the air in which moves upwards. This happens at extremely high speeds. The air there is mixed with various particles, such as sand and dust. This is a funnel that hangs from a cloud and rests on the ground, something like a trunk. Its diameter can vary from tens to hundreds of meters. The second name for this phenomenon is “tornado”. When it comes, a terrible hum is heard. Making its movement, a tornado sucks in everything that can tear it off and lifts it in a spiral. If this crater appears, then it is a terrible hurricane. Tornado can reach speeds of about 60 km / h. It is very difficult to predict this phenomenon, which worsens the situation and leads to large losses.Hurricanes and tornadoes claimed many lives in the history of their existence.
Hurricanes, storms, tornadoes - natural phenomena that can occur anywhere in the world. In order to understand their scope and to be able to compare them, a measurement system is necessary. To do this, use the Beaufort scale. It is based on a visual assessment of what is happening and measures the strength of the wind in points. It was developed in 1806 by Admiral F. Beaufort, born in England, for his own needs. In 1874 it became generally accepted and has since been used by all weather forecasters. Further, it was clarified and supplemented. Points in it are distributed from 0 to 12. If 0 points, then this is complete calm, if 12 is a hurricane, bringing with it great destruction. In 1955, in the USA and England, 5 more were added to the already existing points, that is, from 13 to 17. They are used by these countries.
|Word of Wind||Points||Speed km / h||Signs by which you can visually determine the strength of the wind|
|Calm||0||Up to 1.6||
On land: calm, smoke rises without deviation.
At sea: water without the slightest excitement.
|Quiet||1||1.6 to 4.8||
On land: the weather vane is still not able to determine the direction of the wind, it is noticeable only by a slight deviation of smoke.
At sea: slight ripples, no foam on the ridges.
|Easy||2||From 6.42 to 11.2||
On land: the rustle of leaves is heard, ordinary weathercocks begin to react to the wind.
At sea: the waves are short, the ridges are like glass.
|Weak||3||12.8 to 19.2||
On land: small branches sway, flags begin to develop.
At sea: the waves, though short, are well defined, with crests and foam, occasionally small lambs appear.
|Moderate||4||20.8 to 28.8||
On land: pil and small garbage flies in the air, thin branches begin to sway.
At sea: the waves begin to lengthen, a large number of sheep are fixed.
|Fresh||5||From 30.4 to 38.4||
On land: trees begin to sway, ripples appear on bodies of water.
At sea: the waves are long, but not too large, with a large number of sheep, occasionally splashing.
|Strong||6||40.0 to 49.6||
On land: thick branches and electric wires sway to the sides, the wind pulls the umbrella from his hands.
At sea: large waves with white crests form, splashes become more frequent.
|Strong||7||From 51.2 to 60.8||
On land: the whole tree is swinging, including the trunk, it is very difficult to go against the wind.
At sea: the waves begin to pile up, the crests fall apart.
|Very strong||8||From 62.4 to 73.6||
On land: the branches of trees begin to break, almost impossible to go against the wind.
At sea: the waves are getting higher, splashes soar.
|Storm||9||From 75.2 to 86.4||
On land: the wind begins to damage buildings, removes roof coverings and smoke caps.
At sea: the waves are high, the ridges capsize and form a spray, which significantly reduces visibility.
|Heavy storm||10||From 88.0 to 100.8||
On land: a rather rare phenomenon, trees are pulled out with roots, poorly fortified buildings are demolished.
At sea: the waves are very high, the foam covers most of the water, the waves hit with a strong crash, the visibility is very poor.
|Hard storm||11||From 102.4 to 115.2||
On land: rarely occurs, bears great destruction.
At sea: waves of enormous height, small and medium-sized ships are sometimes not visible, the water is all covered with foam, visibility is almost nil.
|Hurricane||12||116.8 to 131.2||
On land: it is extremely rare, it bears great destruction.
At sea: foam and spray fly in the air, visibility is zero.
What is terrible hurricane?
One of the most dangerous meteorological phenomena can be called a hurricane. The wind in it moves with great speed, causing great harm to people and their property. In addition, these air currents carry with them dirt, sand and water, which leads to mudflows. Huge downpours cause flooding, and if it happens in winter, avalanches often descend. A strong wind destroys buildings, tears out trees, overturns cars, demolishes people.Very often fires and explosions occur due to damage to the electricity grid or gas pipelines. Thus, the consequences of a hurricane are terrible, which makes them very dangerous.
Hurricanes in Russia
Hurricanes can threaten any part of Russia, but most often they occur in the Khabarovsk and Primorye Territories, on Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Chukotka, or the Kuril Islands. This misfortune can happen at any time, and the most dangerous are August and September. Weather forecasters try to foresee such a repeatability and warn the population about the danger. Tornadoes can also appear on the territory of the Russian Federation. The most susceptible to this phenomenon is the water area and the coast of the seas, Siberia, the Urals, the Volga region and the central regions of the state.
Public action in the event of a hurricane
Every person should understand that a hurricane is a deadly phenomenon. If a warning about it is announced, you need to act quickly. First of all, to strengthen everything that can be cut off from the ground, to remove fire-hazardous objects and to stock up on food and clean water for a couple of days ahead. You also need to move away from the windows, it is better to go where there are none at all.Turn off electricity, water and gas equipment. For lighting, candles, lanterns and lamps are used. In order to receive information about the weather, you need to turn on the radio. If you follow these recommendations, nothing will threaten your life.
Thus, hurricanes are spread all over the globe, which makes them a problem for all people. It should be remembered that they are extremely dangerous, so all instructions must be strictly followed to save your life.